Fragmentation of Daily Time

Author: William Michelson

 

 

Fragmentation of daily time is generally perceived as deleterious. With the day as a zero sum game of time, more episodes detract from the time available for others, while also adding to stops, starts, and interruptions.  This is seen as precipitating feelings of stress and dissatisfaction.  Among the relatively few studies of this phenomenon, workplace interruptions and the demands of childcare have been noted as domains contributing to fragmentation.

The hypotheses guiding this paper at the outset are 1) that fragmentation of time would be greater among women and the fully employed among men and women aged 25-64 on weekdays and 2) that heightened fragmentation would be accompanied by more negative subjective feelings about the day.

Statistics Canada’s General Social Survey 19 (2005) was chosen for the current analysis due to its inclusion of a greater than usual number of subjective measures.  While these measures shed light on different levels of time scale, from lifetime to feelings on the interview day – and are statistically inter-related at a high level of correlation – they are found to relate in dissimilar ways to what respondents encounter on the diary day.  John Robinson’s time crunch measure is chosen as an empirically verified index of subjective feelings that arise in the course of the day, as might be the case with heightened fragmentation.

The hypothesis that fragmentation of daily time is accompanied by greater feelings of time crunch is not upheld among both men and women.  Only three of the activities whose frequencies are significantly related to total episodes in the day are significantly related to feelings of time crunch – and these cancel each other out.  More paid employment and child care episodes add to crunch, and watching TV lowers crunch, regardless of respondents’ gender and degree of employment.

Additional analyses substantiate a conclusion that it is not fragmentation per se that leads to subjective outcomes, but rather the characteristics of the “fragments”, however many or few they may be.  It is the greater percentage of child care activities in the array of episodes that most clearly elevates stressful feelings. 

Caregiving time costs and trade-offs with paid work and leisure: Evidence from Sweden, the UK and Canada

Author: Maria Stanfors
Contributing author(s): Josephine Jacobs, Jeffrey Neilson

Population ageing places pressure on pensions and health/caring services, creating an imperative to extend working lives. Alongside this, there has been increased political emphasis in Europe and elsewhere on the provision of in-home care in the home. As a result, many older people will be challenged by the responsibilities of caring for the sick, disabled and elderly while participating in labor market activities.  This paper investigates the conflicts that arise from these dual responsibilities, addressing three research questions:What are the time costs of unpaid care?; How is caregiving time traded-off against time in paid work and leisure among men and women?; Are the time costs and trade-offs similar across distinct policy contexts? We use five Time Use Surveys from Sweden (2000/01 & 2010/11), the UK (2000/2005) and Canada (2010), selecting a sample of individuals aged 50 and over (N=23,795).  The data include socio-demographic background variables and more than 100 primary activity variables indicating how respondents spent their time over a 24-hour period (weekdays and weekend days).  We perform multivariate regression analyses, including estimating simultaneous equation systems in which the dependent variables are the number of minutes in a day that an individual devotes to home production, leisure, market work, and caregiving.  We conduct analyses on datasets from each individual country and from a pooled country dataset to test for significant differences across the countries. Results indicate that women provide more informal care in each country; however, net of other factors, only in Canada are women more likely to be caregivers. We find that the impact of informal care on labor supply is not gendered. There are also important differences by country context, with caregivers in the UK being more likely to reduce paid work to facilitate the provisions of unpaid care. Caregivers in all three countries reduce their leisure time.   Though caregivers in Sweden do not trade off time spent in paid work with time spent caregiving, they do decrease time spent on leisure activities.  This finding supports the idea that more extensive social infrastructure for caring may diminish the labor market effects of intensive unpaid care. 

Does child gender matter in Sweden? Time investments in children and intergenerational transmission of gender roles.

Author: Jeff Neilson
Contributing author(s): Maria Stanfors

That the presence of children in the household affects men’s and women's time use is well-documented, but less investigated is to what extent the gender and sibship position of a child  affect paternal and maternal time allocation. This paper uses the most recent Swedish Time Use Survey (2010/11) to examine the impacts of child gender on parental time spent with children in married/cohabitating two-parent families (N=1,877). We examine time allocation across a variety of activities which have been linked to child development, as well as activities pertaining to the gender division of labor. Concerning time investments in children, we uncover no strong evidence of gender differences in childcare investment time for fathers or mothers. Fathers do however spend more time overall with boys compared to girls, and they seem to trade off their non-television leisure to accommodate this. Mothers consistently spend more time with children than fathers, and we find child-gender to be less determinant of mothers’ time allocation across a variety of activities. We also find some differentiation in parenting based on the interaction between sibship position and gender. Relating to the intergenerational transmission of gender roles, parents partake in different activities with their sons and daughters. The patterning of the type of activities parents involve in with their children suggests a transmission of traditional gender roles. There seems to be a modest bias towards same-sex parental time inputs when raising children and child gender impacts parental specialization with families, even in relatively gender equal contemporary Sweden.  

Time Use Elasticity of Substitution Estimates Conditional on Working Time Available

Author: Okay Gunes
Contributing author(s): Armagan Tuna Aktuna-Gunes

We introduce the demand elasticity of available working time into the model of domestic production in order to show that the limits on discretionary times use may alter the estimates of time use elasticity of substitution good. Our elasticity estimation result for food is 0.50 in Turkey for 2007, which ranges from 0.22 to 0.56 in the literature. However, the elasticity of substitution for food rises up to 0.92 when one considers working time available with all consumption groups, suggesting that households may overcome time scarcity and increase working time by reducing time spent in the leisure, transportation, other, and personal care and health categories. This process, in turn, yields good intensive consumption in Turkey. We obtain more robust estimation results by using the opportunity cost of time measurement proposed by Gardes (2016) for Turkish households in 2007. In this work, the Time Use Survey for 2006 is matched with the 2007 Household Budget Survey by using the method proposed by Rubin (1986). The advantage of this matching method is that the partial correlation between interested variables given in time use and budget surveys are other than zero, eliminating the uncertainty in fabricated data.

Residential Electricity Consumption and Time-use Measured Lifestyle: Quantifying the impacts of urbanization in China

Author: Pui Ting Wong
Contributing author(s): Prof. Yuan Xu

Urban residents are projected to account for 66% of the worlds’ population in 2050 with the majority of the growth occurring in Asia and Africa. With the brief understanding of the rural-urban differential in energy consumption pattern, there is a general agreement on the relationship between urbanization and energy use. Yet, there is still a huge uncertainty on how the mechanisms of urbanization influence energy consumption. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanism of urbanization and its effect on energy use. Yet, whether top-down or button-up approaches adopted, there were still shortcoming needed to be overcome. First, for macro-level analyses, critics argued that most of them have not fully considered the heterogeneity among studied regions and their results did not provide detailed explanations for the underlying mechanisms of urbanization. While for those micro-level studies, even they succeeded in explaining the relationship between urbanization and energy by introducing the concept of lifestyle as the bridge, their quantification method, using monetary consumption as the major indicator, failed to capture temporal dimension of individual behaviors, which is crucial in dictating ones’ activity pattern. To alleviate these shortcomings, “time-use” might be the solution

 

 

Time-use serves as an alternative in measuring people’s behavioral pattern. Empirical applications have proved its strength in revealing individual lifestyle over monetary expenditure in the field of sociology, public health and etc. However, in relation to energy consumption, time-use data still dimly perceived, and only few studies briefly discussed the impacts of time-use pattern on energy use. The complex relationship between social changes, time-use pattern and energy use was still in puzzled. Therefore, the primitive objective of this study is to propose an alternative way in studying how urbanization affects energy use in time-use perspective. Using Chinese residential electricity consumption as an example, it aims to demonstrate the use of time-use approach in quantifying and unpacking the urban-rural differential in term of time-use and energy intensity by activity. These findings quantifying time-use pattern, energy intensity and their impacts on residents’ energy use will provide insight in coping with problems aroused from the massive shift towards more energy-intensive urban lifestyle.

Residential Electricity Consumption and Time-use Measured Lifestyle: Quantifying the impacts of urbanization in China

Author: Pui Ting Wong
Contributing author(s): Prof. Yuan Xu

Urban residents are projected to account for 66% of the worlds’ population in 2050 with the majority of the growth occurring in Asia and Africa. With the brief understanding of the rural-urban differential in energy consumption pattern, there is a general agreement on the relationship between urbanization and energy use. Yet, there is still a huge uncertainty on how the mechanisms of urbanization influence energy consumption. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate the mechanism of urbanization and its effect on energy use. Yet, whether top-down or button-up approaches adopted, there were still shortcoming needed to be overcome. First, for macro-level analyses, critics argued that most of them have not fully considered the heterogeneity among studied regions and their results did not provide detailed explanations for the underlying mechanisms of urbanization. While for those micro-level studies, even they succeeded in explaining the relationship between urbanization and energy by introducing the concept of lifestyle as the bridge, their quantification method, using monetary consumption as the major indicator, failed to capture temporal dimension of individual behaviors, which is crucial in dictating ones’ activity pattern. To alleviate these shortcomings, “time-use” might be the solution

 

Time-use serves as an alternative in measuring people’s behavioral pattern. Empirical applications have proved its strength in revealing individual lifestyle over monetary expenditure in the field of sociology, public health and etc. However, in relation to energy consumption, time-use data still dimly perceived, and only few studies briefly discussed the impacts of time-use pattern on energy use. The complex relationship between social changes, time-use pattern and energy use was still in puzzled. Therefore, the primitive objective of this study is to propose an alternative way in studying how urbanization affects energy use in time-use perspective. Using Chinese residential electricity consumption as an example, it aims to demonstrate the use of time-use approach in quantifying and unpacking the urban-rural differential in term of time-use and energy intensity by activity. These findings quantifying time-use pattern, energy intensity and their impacts on residents’ energy use will provide insight in coping with problems aroused from the massive shift towards more energy-intensive urban lifestyle.

Time-rich and Time-poor: The allocation of time and income

Author: Uffe Enokson

This article focuses on the division of work and private life in a Swedish community. An interview study sheds some light on the diversity of time frames experienced by people living inside and outside labour market. It examines how this duality is paving the way for new patterns of inequality. The purpose is to explore the living conditions of two groups in society: the time-poor who are established in the labour force that experience great demands on their efficiency and educational level, and the time-rich who do not have a natural place in the labour market. People experience an unbalanced division of time and resources not only in work situations but also in everyday life in the home and in leisure time. The time-rich can find that they have small margins, partly due to a lack of social networks and social recognition, while the time-poor experience it due to multiple and unwieldy social roles inside and outside labour market. Society has tried to cope with these two different problems in completely different ways, although both problems are related to income, one through salaried work and the other through income support. The results not only exhibit the polarizing tendencies in terms of time and income. There are also similar differences concerning social participation. Time-rich people have a hard time finding alternative social networks outside the labour market. At the same time, many life-course changes that require both a lot of time and a lot of money occur in time-poor living conditions. A restriction analysis, inspired by the time-geographical approach, shows a diversity of time patterns and space/time restrictions between different life-modes in everyday life. When the individuals’ whole life situation is taken into consideration, the diversity of time patterns creates restrictions that oppose strategies for work/life balance in everyday life.

 

 

 

Key words: time, income, social networks, flexibility, work-life balance, time geography

 

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Author: Theun Pieter van Tienoven

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Lifestyle Dynamics Index©: Time Use Methodology and Worldwide Results

Author: Sanchis Raúl G.
Contributing author(s): 1) Sanchis, Raúl G. 2) Vicente, José

Households have traditionally provided relevant socio-economic information later used in a number of ways both in economic science and policy. This paper provides a novel index which captures lifestyle dynamics by means of official time use surveys which are increasingly spreading out all over the world. We develop the Lifestyle Dynamics Index© based on the information on activities provided by time use diaries available in the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS). We chose MTUS data for the harmonization process applied to all official time use surveys under analysis. Basically the Lifestyle Dynamics Index© is an aggregate index based on each surveyed day in each surveyed household; more in detail, this index tells us the position of an average day within a country in an ordering from a complete routinary day -just one activity is performed during the whole day- to the craziest possible day -that is, a day with the highest dynamics. Thus, the index summarizes this information for all (adult) individuals within the households that are surveyed, as well as summarizes such information for all days in a week. We apply our methodology to all surveys in the MTUS, providing a tool which allows us to compare different lifestyle dynamics among countries even in different moments under a historical perspective. Thus, we provide results for the Lifestyle Dynamics Index© available worldwide historically; these results confirm a clear worldwide pattern towards a less dynamic lifestyle. Last we suggest further implications, applications and refinements of this index for a meaningful use both for scientific or socio-economic policy purposes.

Time allocation in Female Breadwinner Couples in the United States and Spain

Author: Joan García Roman

Female breadwinner families are unusual and represent an atypical allocation of roles in the household. Beginning with the period of recession in 2007, an incremental increase in the proportion of female breadwinner couples has been observed, especially in Spain. The aim of this paper is to study female breadwinner couples and their allocation of time in two countries with different welfare regimes, cultural and social norms and gender attitudes: the US and Spain. I use time use data for both countries in 2002-2003 and 200-2010 in order to analyze differences in two different moments too. The first moment was a period of economic expansion while the second was a period of recession. Preliminary results reveal that female breadwinner couples have changed significantly in Spain, whereas the characteristics have been more stable in the US. Regarding their allocation of time, in the US there is a reversal in the gender gap in terms of time spent in housework and men do more than women. For Spain, there is not a reversal, and women still do more housework even when they are the only employed member of a couple. 

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Author: José María Fernández-Crehuet Santos

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Night Sleep Disruptions in Canada and Sweden. The Gendered Costs of Caring.

Author: Jeff Neilson

A limited number of studies have shown that night sleep disruptions due to caregiving of children are disproportionally experienced by women, although the majority of these studies have been performed on non-nationally representative samples. Disruptive night sleep can have myriad implications in both the short- and long-term, leading to increased fatigue, less vigour, irritability, and poorer health in general. To date, there are no studies that examine gender differences in night disruptions due to both caregiving and non-caregiving factors in a cross-country comparative perspective using nationally-representative samples. This paper fills this gap by using time use data from the General Social Survey of Canada (2010) and the Swedish Time Use Survey (2010/11). Multivariate analyses examine night sleep disruptions due to childcare and non-childcare related factors for synthetic couples in Canada and Sweden, and a small sub-sample of true couples in Sweden, the majority of whom are defined as dual-earners. Results show night disruptions followed by childcare and non-childcare activities to be more prevalent for women than men in both Sweden and Canada, but find gender differences of such disruptions to be more salient in Canada concerning childcare disruptions, and Sweden concerning non-childcare disruptions. Amongst the sub-sample of true couples in Sweden, some evidence is uncovered to suggest that couples who divide household production more equally during the day extend this egalitarianism into the night. Results also show that those who experience night disruptions compensate for the loss in sleep efficiency in other activities. The results illustrate that night disruptions for childcare and non-childcare related factors manifest themselves differently according to gender across countries, and that such disruptions are more costly to women than men.    

Carers time use: Preliminary findings from time use diaries

Author: Rosalie Ashworth
Contributing author(s): Dr Alison Dawson and Professor Alison Bowes

‘Unpaid care for older people: a study of carers’ time’ is a project funded by the Economic and Social Research Council through the Centre for Population Change (‘CPC-II). The overall aim of the project is to improve our understanding of the patterns of carer time-use, to support the development of clear question foci in large-scale survey research, and to provide usable up-to-date data for exploring trends in caring for older people. In the first stage of the project, qualitative interviews with 62 carers of older adults across Great Britain explored how care partnerships involving older people are operating in diverse policy contexts, and what carers do, in particular taking account of policy divergence in the devolved UK context, and identifying the impacts of trends which have emerged in previous research. Together with feedback from a local panel of carers, this data has been used to design a time-use data collection tool in the form of an easy-to-use ‘time use diary’ available in paper, electronic and online versions specifically to collect information from carers about time that they spend caring and supporting. Time use diaries were disseminated at sites across the UK between January and June 2017. In this presentation preliminary analysis of the data collected using these diaries will be presented, with reflections on the diary method and implications for large-scale surveys. 

Marriage legalization and same-sex couples’ shared time in the United States

Author: Katie Genadek
Contributing author(s): Sarah M Flood; Joan Garcia Roman

On June 26 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States struck down state-level bans on same-sex marriage as unconstitutional. In the 12 years prior to the Supreme Court ruling, 36 states had already made same-sex marriage legal within the state. It is possible that legalizing marriage for same-sex couples decreased the stigma associated with being a minority relationship type, and provided more complete institutionalization of same-sex relationships. In this paper estimate the impact of marriage legalization on the amount and type of shared time same-sex couples spend together. This analysis will provide insight into the impact of marriage legalization on stigma and same-sex relationships.

 

We estimate the effect of marriage legalization on same-sex couples using differences-in-differences and differences-in-differences-in-differences models that use the cross state and time variation in law adoption. In order to perform this analysis, we use cross-sectional American Time Use Survey data from 2003-2016.  While we are limited in observations, early analyses show that while the laws had little impact on shared time in total or with no one else present for same-sex couples, yet there is limited evidence that they did impact what couples to do together and where they spend there time. For this paper, we will add the newest year of data (2016) and further investigate the effects of marriage legalization on the relationships of same-sex couples in the United States.

Children’s Sex and the Subjective Well-being of Parents

Author: Younghwan Song

Children’s sex affects behaviors of their parents in various ways. Men’s labor supply and wage rates increase more in response to the births of sons than to the births of daughters (Lundberg and Rose 2002). A first-born daughter is significantly less likely to be living with her father compared to a first-born son because of a higher probability of divorce and a lower probability of marriage (Dahl and Moretti 2008). And fathers of boys invest more time in children, by reducing their leisure time without children, than those with only daughters (Mammen 2011). Using data drawn from the 2010, 2012, and 2013 American Time Use Survey Well-Being Modules, this paper examines the effect of children’s sex on the subjective well-being of parents in the United States. Various measures of subjective well-being based on time-diary data—meaningfulness, happiness, pain, sadness, tiredness, and stress—are examined. The results indicate that the effect of children’s sex on parents’ subjective well-being vary between fathers and mothers and also by the number of children. Among the parents with only one child, a son increases fathers’ meaningfulness and happiness and lowers both parents’ stress level relative to a daughter. Among the parents with more than one child, however, children’s sex does not appear to affect the subjective well-being of parents.

Bargaining Power and the Household Division of Labour: Evidence from 2008 China Time-Use Survey

Author: PAN XUHUA
Contributing author(s): Shi Fengdan, Caryn Bruyere and Maria S. Floro

Analysis of time use patterns and the role of bargaining power enhance our

understanding of household dynamics and factors impacting women’s

labour market participation in China. It is a useful tool for policymakers

seeking to promote gender equality and improve women’s well-being. Using

a sample of 13,505 couples from the 2008 China National Time Use Survey

(CTUS), this study examines the relationship between bargaining power and

the amount of time allocated to household and care work and market work.

It is found that wives spend a longer time working in a day (556 minutes)

than husbands (520 minutes). The findings also show that the impact of

bargaining power on women’s time in unpaid work is complicated.

Husbands with higher bargaining power (as proxied by the education gap

between spouses) spend less time on housework and more time on market

work. However, the education gap does not influence women’s time spent

on household work, while the bargaining power proxied by age gap

between spouses does not affect the husband’s household work time.

Having young children increases the time spent in housework for both

spouses, but the wife’s housework increases considerably more than her

husband’s (89.3 minutes vs. 29.8 minutes). The presence of older, retired

household members reduces the wife’s housework and increases her market

work, indicating their support in domestic chores performed by women.

How do the US-born benefit from marrying immigrants?

Author: Victoria Vernon
Contributing author(s): Shoshana Grossbard

We examine the labor supply and time use patterns of US-born men and women as a function of whether they intermarried with an immigrant.  Marriage is one of the channels of assimilation for immigrants via better language skills and labor market outcomes achieved through native spouse’s network and legal status.  Marriage market theory predicts that immigrants should be willing to pay a price to marry a native in exchange for these ‘assimilation services’, thereby creating a premium for the US born spouse. The premium can take the form of lower labor force participation, fewer hours of paid work, less demanding work, or fewer chores on the part of the native spouse, or higher workload for the immigrant spouse. Using data from March Current Population Survey 2003-15 and American Time Use Survey, we investigate are employment probability, hourly wages, hours of commercial work, unpaid work at home, and total work. We find evidence that many natives benefit from marrying an immigrant in the US as they enjoy lighter workload while their spouses work more.  The results vary by immigrant country of origin, legal status, age at arrival, and education of the native spouse. Immigrant wives of native men spend more time in chores and total work than native wives, and more time in chores than endogamously married immigrant women. Immigrant husbands in intermarriages spend more time in paid work and in total work than native husbands and endogamouly married immigrant men. The size of the premium received by the native spouse varies according to the need for assimilation services by the immigrant spouse: it is close to zero for spouses of immigrants from English-speaking countries and child immigrants, and high for non-US citizens who can obtain legal status through marriage.  We attempt instrumental variable estimation to correct for selection bias, and offer explanations for our findings.

Dear Spanish time schedule. Proposals for a time schedule change in Spain

Author: Manuel Javier Callejo Gallego
Contributing author(s): Javier Callejo y Cecilia Díaz-Méndez

A schedule is an instrument that articulates a society. It serves to link some activities with others, setting the rhythm of daily life. It offers the possibility to repeat regularly activities. It offers the possibility of sharing activities too. A schedule is essentially necessary to regulate the coexistence, to establish an order in the daily life of the citizens. In Spain, once again, the debate on the change of schedules has begun. In this paper we are going to question some of the premises on which this debate is based in order to reflect on the modification of the timetable in Spain.

The supporters of a necessary change in the schedule argue that: Europe has a working schedule of 9 to 5, the working day in Spain is mostly “jornada partida”, Spaniards spend more time than Europeans eating, Spaniards want a change of working day, there is a positive relationship between low Spanish productivity and working hours. Nevertheless, some of these premises are false, as we shall see. To demonstrate this, we used the dates of the Center for Time Use Research (Oxford University), dedicated to the homogenization of time use surveys of different countries. We will expand this information with data from INE.

 

The work constitutes a modest approximation to the processes of social institutionalization of the schedules and, therefore, of the time.

Time, Income and Subjective Well-Being – 20 Years of Multidimensional Polarization in Germany

Author: Joachim Merz
Contributing author(s): Joachim Merz

This paper is about the interdependence of time and income in a multidimensional polarization perspective. Subjective well-being will be the link for evaluating a possible trade-off between the dimensions. The topic is referring to the growing polarization discussion of society accompanied with an erosion of the middle class. With new German time use diary data of the German Federal Statistical Office we provide empirical results over 20 years for the poor and the affluence.

Thus our study contributes to the polarization discussion with respect to multidimensional theoretical measurement and empirical application in three ways: First, we propose extended multidimensional polarization indices based on an estimated CES-type well-being function with new measures of multidimensional polarization. Instead of arbitrarily choosing the CES attributes’ parameters the interdependent relations of time and income will be evaluated by German Society. Second, polarization intensity is measured by the new mean minimum polarization gap 2DGAP. This polarization intensity measure provides transparency with regard to each singular attributes but ensures at the same time its interdependence. This provides new perspectives for targeted economic and social policies in an enhanced multidimensional setting. Third, the empirical application over 20 years incorporates time as a fundamental resource for any activity in addition to the traditional income measure. In particular, genuine personal leisure time will take place for possible social participation in the spirit of social inclusion/exclusion and Amartya Sen’s capability approach.

With subjective well-being data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and detailed time use diary data of the now available German Time Use Surveys (GTUS) 1991/92, 2001/02 and 2012/13 we quantify multidimensional polarization by headcount ratios, well-being measures and 2DGAP measures for interdependent multidimensional polarization intensity of the working poor and the working affluent in Germany.

Prominent empirical results: Genuine personal leisure time in addition to income is an important polarization attribute. Compensation is of economic and statistical significance. In particular supported by the new minimum 2DGAP approach, multi­dimensional polarization increased over that period of 20 years in Germany. And, there are different multidimensional polarization results and developments for the self-employed, employees and subsequently for further socio-economic groups.

Social contexts and the enjoyment of eating in France

Author: Man Yee Kan
Contributing author(s): Anne Lhuissier, INRA-ALISS

Past studies showed that eating habits have important implications for one’s health and well-being. In this paper, we analyse data from the French Time Use Survey 2010-11 to investigate patterns and social contexts of eating time and their association with the level of enjoyment. In particular, we test the hypothesis the family meal time is more enjoyable than eating in other social contexts. 

The results show that enjoyment is associated with the duration, timing (morning, lunch, afternoon, dinner and night), with whom (alone, with the spouse, with children, with family members, and with friends), and where (home, workplace, restaurant, friend’s home). For example, morning is the least enjoyable time for eating; eating alone is less enjoyable than eating with others (with the spouse, children, family members, friends); and eating at the workplace is less enjoyable than eating at home and any other places.

 

We further test whether the enjoyment with eating is associated with housework and childcare responsibilities. The findings suggest that cooking time is positively associated with enjoyment with eating, and the association is stronger for women.

The division of housework and caring work between husbands and wives in Japan

Author: Man Yee Kan
Contributing author(s): Man Yee Kan, University of Oxford

This paper analyses data of the Japanese Time Use Survey 2006 to investigate how husbands and wives allocate routine housework, non-routine housework, child care, and adult care in Japan. In particular, we will investigate whether residing parents may help alleviate the level of gender inequality in the domestic division of labour between spouses. Multigenerational households constituted around a quarter of households in Japan. Co-residing elderly parents may help with domestic work on the one hand, but also may increase both housework and care work demands of the household.  Our earlier findings show that married women are responsible for a lion’s share of all types of domestic work and care. Married men rarely undertake any routine housework (such as cooking and cleaning) and their domestic work time concentrates on non-routine type of housework (such as home-repairs). We will investigate the association of gender division of domestic labour with employment statuses, income and educational levels of both spouses. Our preliminary findings suggest that the associations vary according to whether the couple reside with their maternal or paternal mothers and fathers.  

A Household Collective model with Time Use and Full Expenditures

Author: Silvia Salazar

This article looks at possible inequality within the household share of income as well as in the differences in consumption between the members of the couple. The paper uses a collective model with many consumption goods to include monetary and time expenditures but also the domestic production in the estimation of the sharing rule. To do so, I assume that households transform monetary and time inputs into final goods though a technology production function. The shadow price of the domestic production reflects differences in the transformation productivity. The results show that taking into account the domestic production increases by 6 percentages points the share of full income allocated to women, which implies that the couple's preferences resembles more to that of women. We also observed that the inclusion of domestic production changes the budget shares of individuals, even when monetary budget shares are the same.

Working Alone? Social Time with Coworkers and Emotional Well-being among American Workers

Author: Chaeyoon Lim

Workplace is where workers spend a large part of their daily life and naturally is one of the key “organizational foci” where they form social ties. However, organization scholars observe that American workplaces have become less of a community and workers increasingly “work alone.” I use the American Time Use Study to examine the quantity and quality of social time American workers spend with coworkers. First, I examine how much time American workers spend socially with coworkers outside workplace and how social time with coworkers is distributed across demographics. In particular, I ask whether the culture of overwork spills over to social life and people in the occupations with such culture spend more time with coworkers socially. Second, I examine how much American workers enjoy the social time with coworkers compared to social time with family and friends or the leisure time spent alone.  

 

My preliminary findings suggest that American workers spend about 15 minutes a day in the leisure activities with coworkers in weekdays and about 5 minutes in weekends. The distribution is extremely skewed as 70% of all workers spend no time socially with coworkers in any given weekday. Among the people who do spend time socially with coworkers, the average social time is 50 minutes in weekday and an hour in weekend. I find significant variations in the amount of social time with coworkers by gender, occupation, and union membership. I also find a positive relationship between work hours and social time with coworkers, implying that the culture of overwork may impact how American workers spend their social time.

My analysis also suggests that American workers enjoy social time with coworkers less than the time with family or friends or than the leisure activities they participate alone. However, how much they enjoy the social time with coworkers varies between weekdays and weekends. Workers report a significantly higher level of well-being during the social time with coworkers in weekdays compared to the time they spend doing the same activities but alone; but they report a lower well-being during the social time with coworkers in weekends.

EUROSTAT's ongoing activities for a Harmonised European Time Use Survey

Author: Paul Camenzind
Contributing author(s): None

 

In the early 1990s, the statistical office of the European Union (Eurostat) recognised the need for a better comparability between national time use surveys (TUS) across Europe. In cooperation with the Member States (MS), Eurostat developed published in 2000 guidelines for "Harmonised European Time Use Surveys" (HETUS). A first wave of HETUS 2000 was conducted in 14 European countries between 1998 and 2006. In 2008, the HETUS guidelines were revised with the aim to further improve the cross-country comparability. The second wave of HETUS (2010) was conducted in 18 European countries between 2008 and 2015. Some results will be shown in the first part of the presentation.

 

Preparation activities for the next wave of data collection, HETUS 2020, are underway. Experience with waves 2000 and 2010 show the need to further improve data comparability. Moreover, some re-design of HETUS would be necessary to allow future waves to capture new trends arising from changing life-styles, new technologies, etc. In this respect, the Eurostat Working Group "Time Use Survey" identified in 2016 methodological and technical aspects for future work in view of the 2020 data collection. Two calls for grants were launched in 2016 and 2017 by Eurostat to support MS activities in view of improving the HETUS 2020 design and the use of innovative tools and sources for TUS data collection respectively. Additionally, Eurostat set up a new Task Force on "Innovative Tools and Sources in TUS". A first meeting will take place in April 2017. The outcome of this meeting, information on the TUS grants 2016 and 2017, as well as the further work plans of Eurostat for HETUS 2020 data collection will be the main elements of the second part of the presentation.

The unpaid labor of love: U.S. mothers' time with children on weekdays and weekends

Author: Sanjiv Gupta
Contributing author(s): Liana C. Sayer

In this paper we use the 2003-2014 waves of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to analyze variation in the influence of employment hours on mothers' housework and time with children on weekdays and on weekend. Employment should constrain time available for unpaid work on weekdays more so than weekends, and we find a stronger negative association between employment and housework hours on weekdays compared to weekends. Indeed on weekends the association is positive, suggesting that women with high employment hours use these days to catch up on housework missed during the week. Influences of employment hours and day of week on time spent with children are theoretically more complex. As a form of women’s unpaid labor, time with children presents a unique combination of urgency as well as emotional and social significance. Cultural expectations in the U.S. of “intensive mothering” valorize both the amount and “quality” of time spent with children. Studies suggest these norms are especially prevalent among college educated mothers. We hypothesize that time spent with children is less subject than time spent on housework to ‘time availability,’ especially on weekends, and especially for college educated mothers. Our preliminary findings are surprising. In conventional analyses that do not differentiate by type of day, we find negative associations between employment hours and time spent with children for all mothers, and the interaction between college education and employment hours is not significant. In separate analyses by type of day, time spent with children is negatively associated with mothers’ weekly employment hours on both weekdays and weekends--unlike housework, mothers do not appear to be catching up on childcare on weekends. This is true even for college educated women. Nor is there a significant difference in the levels by college. For the paper to be presented we will add interactions for age of youngest child and number of children.

Religious tradition and the gender division of housework in Italy

Author: Renzo Carriero
Contributing author(s): Lorenzo Todesco, University of Torino - Italy

In this paper we investigate to what extent the gender division of housework in Italy is affected by a cultural factor such as conformity to religious tradition. Catholic religion in fact is quite conservative in terms of gender roles (Voicu et al. 2009) and promotes a traditional division of labor at home. We hypothesize that the weight of religion is exerted not only on churchgoers, but affects also those who live in an environment that is favorable to religious tradition in general. We measure the latter through the rate or religious marriages (on total number of marriages), which is quite variable across regions and also tend to decline across time, and then use this indicator in a multilevel longitudinal analysis using data from three editions of the Italian Time Use Survey (2002-03, 2008-09, 2013-14). Our estimates of the effect of religious tradition are mainly obtained from within-region changes in the rate of religious marriages. In addition to standard micro-level variables, we also control for another concomitant institutional factor that may affect housework division ‒ childcare coverage at regional level ‒ as greater availability of childcare services influence the ability of women to remain in the labor market after childbirth and this in turn affects their unpaid work time. The results of our preliminary analyses indicate that women living in regions where the religious marriage rate declined less tend to spend more time in routine housework, while for men the effect is negative, but not statistically significant. We therefore conclude that religious tradition is an important factor that explains why in Italy the gender division of household labor, compared to other countries, remains so uneven.

Smartime – A new app to measure daily behaviors through time use

Author: Renzo Carriero

 

 

In this presentation, I introduce the principles of functioning of a new smartphone app, called Smartime, designed to monitor and collect data on daily behaviors through time use. This is not the simple transposition on a smartphone screen of the traditional paper-and-pencil time diary. Smartime uses modern telephone sensors, such as GPS receiver and accelerometer, to track user’s position in space and time. Through reverse geo-coding and machine learning algorithms, Smartime tries to infer users’ activities from their past activities performed around the same time and places. The goal is to make data collection the least intrusive as possible, by asking very few inputs to users. If respondent’s burden is so minimized, the data collection period may extend beyond one or two days and make individual data much less “noisy”.

In addition, Smartime incorporates a mood meter, that is a module asking respondents to self-evaluate their mood (or other psychological states) at random time intervals. These real-time evaluations can be then matched to respondent’s activities and geographical places.

The Smartime project started in May 2016 and is expected to deliver the results of its first field test by the end of 2017. In this presentation/poster, I will show a Smartime prototype and the results of preliminary tests.

Class and eating: Analysis of frequency and duration of family meals in Britain.

Author: Ewa Jarosz

This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain, focusing on family meals among respondents with under-age children. Eating with family members brings multiple benefits to individuals, such as improved wellbeing, nutritional status, or school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles might pose a challenge to commensal eating, but not all social groups are at the same risk of skipping or shortening meals they have with others. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual’s social class. How people eat has also been associated with education, work schedules, and family characteristics. Qualitative studies, though very insightful, do not allow disaggregating the effect of these variables hence the need for quantitative exploration. This study uses 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey data in a quantitative analysis of eating patterns. Statistical models show the net effects of social class, education, work characteristics and family-related covariates on the frequency and duration of family meals. Respondents in highest class dedicate overall more time to family meals, while those with tertiary education eat more often. Working hours, both in case of paid and domestic work, do not affect the frequency or duration family meals, but people working in shifts have fewer meals. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend least time eating with their families. Finally, some universal traits emerge – older people spend more time eating and eat more frequently, and weekends are characterized by more frequent meals and longer eating also when other social characteristics are accounted for. 

Time Use Research in Costa Rica

Author: Irma Sandoval

Time Use Research in Costa Rica

Irma Sandoval Carvajal

Universidad Nacional

Universidad de Costa Rica

 

Time Use Research in Costa Rica was established when a set of questions were included in the Encuesta de Propósitos Múltiples in the year 2004 (MUT-2004 survey), which was made possible by the efforts of the Interagency Commission “Comisión Interinstitucional de Contabilización del Trabajo Femenino”, integrated since the year 2000 by the National Institute of Women (Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres, INAMU), the National Institute of Statistics and Census (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos, INEC), the Ministry of National Planning and Economic Policy (MIDEPLAN), the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MTSS), the Research Center in Women’s Studies of the University of Costa Rica (Centro de Investigación de Estudios de la Mujer, CIEMUCR), the Institute of Gender Studies of the State Distance University (Instituto de Estudios de Género, IEGUNED) and the Institute of Social Studies in Population of the National University of Costa Rica (Instituto de Estudios Sociales en Población, IDESPO-UNA).[1]

Afterwards, in the years 2009 and 2012, IDESPO-UNA performed time use surveys on college students, and in 2011 it undertook the first independent time use survey in the Greater Metropolitan Area (EUT-GAM survey), a region that represents 50% of the Costa Rican population, in coordination with the Commission introduced above.[2]

The EUT-GAM survey evidenced the gap in the time men and women dedicate to do different activities: men dedicate around 15 hours a week to domestic work, compared to women, who dedicate 37 hours a week. In the context of domestic work, the mayor difference is found in food preparation, where men weekly dedicate 3:34 and women 12:31; in second place comes cleaning and housekeeping (3:26 for men and 9:03 for women) and in third place comes exclusive caring for children under the age of 12 (2:16 for men and 5:14 for women).

With the EUT-GAM survey it was possible to gather more disaggregated information, which allowed having better estimates and moving forward with the calculation of the economic value of unpaid work, and in turn, evidence the importance of this type of work on the economy. It was estimated that unpaid work equals to 30% of Costa Rica’s Gross Domestic Product.[3]

The aim of this paper will be to show the Costa Rican experience on Time Use surveys, as well as the main results of these studies, looking forward to the undertaking of the National Time Use Survey, on November 2017 (ENUT-2017 survey).

 

 

[1]Sandoval, Irma. González, Lidia. Guzmán, Laura. (2008).  ¿2 +2 =6? El trabajo que hacen mujeres y hombres en Costa Rica no se cuenta igual. Principales resultados del Módulo de Uso del Tiempo 2004. Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres. INAMU. San José, Costa Rica

 

[2]Sandoval, Irma. González, Lidia.  Rodríguez, Guiselle y Guzmán Laura. (2012). Uso del Tiempo en la Gran Área Metropolitana 2011. Una mirada cuantitativa del trabajo invisible de las mujeres. Colección Estadísticas de la desigualdad por género.  Instituto Nacional de las Mujeres. INAMU. San José, Costa Rica.

 

[3]Sandoval Irma y González, Lidia (2015). Estimación del valor económico del trabajo no remunerado en Costa Rica.  Resultados e ilustración metodológica. En Estudios Demográficos y Urbanos, Vol. 30, Núm. 3 (90) , pp. 691-725

Time-zone and work life balance in Spain

Author: José María Fernández-Crehuet Santos

Marathon working days; low productivity; late lunches and dinners compared to the rest of Europe; less time for personal life, rest and recreation; family-work imbalances... these longstanding aspects of Spanish life are all largely the result of Spain being in the wrong time zone, which should be Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), the same as Portugal, the United Kingdom and Ireland, but which is in fact an hour later, thanks a provisional law decision in 1940 to align the country's clocks with those of Germany. The solution, for a better work life balance, is for Spain to turn its clocks back 60 minutes and introduce more regular working hours, starting at 9am and ending at 5pm, as in the rest of Europe.

Ignored supporters of household well-being – what happens beyond the reach of the traditional economic approach

Author: Jacek Jankiewicz
Contributing author(s): Przemysław Garsztka, Poznań University of Economics, al. Niepodległości 10, 61-875 Poznań, Poland

In recent decades, great interest has arisen in the scientific community about better understanding and measuring people’s well-being. It is widely recognized that an exclusive concern with production and consumption, as measured in national accounts such as GDP, is an insufficient strategy and should not be the only source for guiding policy makers. This paper deals with nonmarket productive activities as sources of economic welfare which are recognised as part of the objective well-being of households.

In the analysis the micro data from two waves (2003-04 and 2013) of Polish time use surveys were used. All persons were categorized by gender, the presence/absence of children under six years of age, as well as into three education groups and three age groups. This gave 36 cells for each edition of the survey and a potential sample of 72 grouped observations.

The aim of the paper is to investigate how the differences in time use between employed and unemployed people arise from various underlying demographic characteristics. To measure the degrees of compensation for market work with household work, the means and their standard errors were calculated for all respondents’ ages. The results indicate how many minutes of additional household production corresponds to each hour of market time not worked by an unemployed individuals in various types of households. By this research strategy we distinguish the groups in society which suffer the most during recessions and high levels of unemployment, and those for which the cost of unfavourable market circumstances are comparatively low. The results indicate that independently from the socioeconomic characteristics of households, the highest degrees of compensation are seen among unemployed women. What is more, as far as numbers are concerned, women definitely exceed men in the category of people who declare fulfilling domestic tasks as their economic status and they produce substantially more compared to employed women and even those whose declared status is unemployed.

 

Keywords: well-being, unemployment, home production.

Fathers’ intensive schedule: an analysis with the Spanish Time Use Survey

Author: Irina Fernandez

Why do fathers of young children work such long hours, even if they live in dual earner couples? We know little about fathers’ schedules apart from the fact that they tend to be longer than the standard work-week. This paper examines Spanish fathers’ use of what has been called the ‘intensive schedule’, drawing on data from the Spanish Time Use Survey (STUS) 2002 and 2009. An ‘intensive schedule’ would be one which concentrates work time within the core hours when externally provided childcare facilities are usually available (i.e. about 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.) and which stablishes what Clark called clear boundaries (Clark 2000) between the family and the work spheres, i.e. avoiding work during the evening or weekends. In a society where both men and women have responsibilities out of work, these men could be pioneering what can represent a new model for a more equitable gender division of paid and unpaid work, challenging the ‘ideal (male) worker’ schema (Correll, Benard & Paik 2007). However, they face challenges derived not only from gender stereotyping processes, but also from changes at the economic level. In a moment when the concept of flexibility (a model including, but not restricted to, a certain agency of workers to decide when and where to work) is spreading as a paradigm and workloads are increasing, both men and women have to manage the tension of discretionally allocating the right time for each of both potentially competing spheres. Diary based surveys as the STUS offer several methodological advantages to obtain long term estimators of behavioural variables as time devoted to work: they account for the real schedule (avoiding therefore perception bias) and are therefore sensitive to nuances in work hours and /or their distribution as well as informal arrangements.

References.

Clark, S. C. (2000) 'Work Family Border Theory A New Theory', Human Relations, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 747–770.

Correll, S. J., Benard, S. & Paik, I. (2007) 'Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?', American Journal of Sociology, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 1297–1339. http://doi.org/10.1086/511799

 

 

Understanding inconsistencies on time use surveys via smartphone

Author: Elisa Gobbi
Contributing author(s): Ivano Bison, Fausto Giunchiglia, Mattia Zeni, Enrico Bignotti

Time diaries are the main tool for understanding how people allocate their time. However, several issues related to how respondents report their activities, e.g. memory bias and “carelessness”, lead to inconsistencies in the data. Researchers are aware of these problems but traditional sociological tools do not allow to them cope with them. Smartphones, due to their ubiquity and sensors, can address these issues by exploiting smartphones to administer time diary. Our interdisciplinary approach permits to confirm the given answer with smarphones’ sensors. We apply our solution to the SmartUnitn project of University of Trento[1], which investigates how students’ behavior affect their academic performance. We provide students with i-Log, a dedicated app for administering a time diary on their use of time while also collecting sensor data. The questionnaire last for a week, where every 30 minutes a new question has been generated through notification on students’ smartphones. Firstly, we developed two parameters DeltaQA and Duration strictly related to memory bias and “carelessness” issues. Our work allows us to quantify them in respondents’ behavior related to the survey.  Secondly, we pinpointed inconsistencies in students’ by matching students’ answers with sensors: we chose, from the possible cases, the answer “Home” and the position data, by combining GPS and network data. Then, we analyzed the influence of DeltaQA and Duration on home answers’ inconsistencies. Our work shows the potentialities of smartphones for addressing time surveys and coping with their issues, which would allow social scientists to modify the importance associated to answers, to identify errors, to choose strategy for missing data and, above all, to compare and validate the given answer with the reality.

 

[1] For more details check our website (in construction): http://trams.disi.unitn.it/#page-top

Work and Family Life Balance in Single-Mother Households

Author: Nuria Garcia-Saladrigas

 

This paper analyses time use in unpaid work of members in single-mother households compared to dual parent households. Our unit of analysis is the nucleus with at least one child under 18-years-old. We calculate of time spent in daily activities by household members (four categories: mother, parents, nucleus -mother, father and children- and household members) to measure the time devoted to care-giving and housework. The objective is threefold. First, we identify whether the allocation of unpaid work differs across household typologies, with a special emphasis on childcare. Because woman tend to be the main family supporters in single-mother families, we hypothesize that they might spend less time at home. Second, we aim to assess which mothers’ characteristics (level of education, age of the youngest child, number of children, etc.) are associated with the time devoted to childcare and housework. Third, we estimate the time invested in children and household tasks by the nuclei and other household members in order to determine whether there is more support in single-mother families. We use the Spain Time Use Survey, 2009-2010, which includes individual activity diary (24 hours divided in intervals of 10 minutes) of each household member aged 10 and over. Preliminary results confirm that single mothers allocate less time on housework compared to dual parent mothers. Other members’ time contribution in housework and childcare is similar among single-mothers and dual parent households. However, the proportion of single-mothers living with other people is higher, indicating a possible strategy to improve their work-life balance.

Participation in Sports and Exercise in the U.S. – How’s that working out?

Author: Rose Woods

 

Since the middle of the 20th century, government and the private sector have put forth policies and dedicated resources toward encouraging more physical activity. At the same time, efforts to measure physical activity were implemented through state and area studies and national surveys.[1] For example, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2014, about 21 percent of adults met the 2008 federal activity guidelines for both aerobic activity and muscle strengthening[2]. Time use surveys can complement these sources of data to provide a deeper understanding of levels and trends in physical activity in the United States. The American Time Use Survey (ATUS) is a 24-hour diary designed to measure how Americans spend their time on an average day. The ATUS program produces estimates annually of participation in sports and exercise. However, more detailed analysis of these sports and exercise activities has been examined less frequently.

 

In addition to the information about how, where, and with whom Americans spend their time, the ATUS provides detailed activity descriptions about the types of sports and exercise activities in which people engage. Using data from 2003 through 2015, I examine the level of participation in sports and exercise activities and changes that have occurred over time. In addition, I examine the participation in selected sports and exercise activities and how the distribution of participants in these activities varies by gender and age. I also evaluate differences in participation based on geographic region and educational attainment.  I examine the amount of time spent engaged in sports and exercise and how that differs across selected activities and for weekdays versus weekend days. I also use information about who people are with when they engage in sports and exercise activities and investigate how that affects the duration of the time spent in these activities. Lastly, I examine the time of day when people engage in sports and exercise activities.

 

[1]National Health Interview Survey – Historical Context https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/physical_activity/pa_history.htm.

[2]Health, United States, 2015.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus15.pdf#highlights

 

2017 ATUS Leave and Job Flexibilities Module

Author: Rose Woods

 

There is currently little information about flexible work schedules in the United States and their relationship to workers’ ability to balance work and personal needs. Coupled with time use data, this information allows for a richer understanding of the constraints that people face in their daily lives, and how flexibility in one’s job can affect not only workers, but also their families and society in general. 

 

 

 

Starting in January 2017, the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) deployed a Leave and Job Flexibilities module that includes questions about workers’ access to paid and unpaid leave, their use of leave, and their unmet need to take leave. In addition, the 2017 module includes questions about the types of shifts people work, how much flexibility and control workers have in determining their schedules, and whether they can or do work from home.

 

 

 

This poster will present an overview of what will be collected in the ATUS 2017 Leave and Job Flexibilities Module. The module is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor Women’s Bureau.

 

Cross-National Variation in Configurations and Health Implications of the "Second Shift"

Author: Liana Sayer
Contributing author(s): Melissa Milkie, University of Toronto; Sara Raley, McDaniel College

A relatively small proportion of U.S. married mothers, about 15 percent, fit the profile of "second shift" mothers, in which both they and their partners work fulltime and have one or more preschoolers. This group does about 7 more hours per week of total work (paid plus unpaid) than their partners and feels disproportionately rushed and stressed. Cross-national variation in work/family policies, working time regulations, and gender norms should work to amplify second shift time inequalities in some countries but mitigate them in others. In this paper, using harmonized time diary data from the MTUS-X (Multinational Time Use Survey Data Archive, https://www.mtusdata.org/mtus/about.shtml), we examine country level variation in the extent of the second shift and associations of the second shift with self-reported health. We focus specifically on the proportion of mothers in the second shift category and the magnitude of women’s overwork and leisure deficit compared with similarly situated fathers. We include countries that represent specific “gender logics” and for which MTUS-X has harmonized publicly available data in the 2000s: France, Netherlands, Spain, the UK, and the US. Consistent with Hochschild’s findings, we find that mothers in fulltime dual-earner couples with young children have higher workloads than similarly situated fathers in every context except the Netherlands (where fathers have larger workloads). The Netherlands is also distinct in that a very low percentage of parents with young children are in the fulltime employed dual-earner family type (less than 15%) whereas about 35% of families with young children in the U.S., Spain and France, are in such families. Finally, the overall size of the workloads among fulltime employed dual-earner parents with young children appears to be largest in Spain and smallest in France. 

Coupled clocks: changing work schedules of married couples

Author: Joon Han
Contributing author(s): Won Chung

South Korea shows M-from patterns of female labor participation over life-course. Many women who worked before marriage tend to quit the job and re-enter labor market only after child-rearing period.  It has been argued that lack of work life balance, partiarchical division of household labor, and discrimination against women--especially married women--are responsible for the pattern. In this paper, we analyze the Korean time use data for 1999, 2004, 2009, and 2014 to show the changes (or continuity) in arrangement of working schedules between husbands and wives to cope with the demand of household labor and chile care. Although Korean government emphasize the need for flexible employment arrangement and work schedule for married wormen, firms are slow to meet the need. We classify the patterns of work schedules for couples and see the changes in the patterns between 1999 and 2014. We discuss the implication of the changes for labor market and public policy.

Decomposing the Gender Gap in Housework: Bargaining with Time in the US

Author: Kamila Kolpashnikova

What factors account for the gender gap in housework tasks? To answer this question, I analyze time-use diaries from the American Time Use Survey for the period from 2003 to 2015. Using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method, I test the relative resources, time availability, autonomy and gender display frameworks in their ability to explain the gender gap in housework among White, Black, Native, Asian, and Hispanic Americans. The results show that the most potent theory in explaining the gender gap among resource-based approaches is the time availability perspective. For instance, it can explain most of the gender gap in shopping among Asian and Hispanic Americans. The findings suggest that Americans rely on bargaining with time rather than monetary resources, relative or absolute, when it comes to the division of housework.

Socioeconomic changes in domestic production and consumption by sex and age from 2002 to 2010 in Spain

Author: Elisenda Rentería
Contributing author(s): Rosario Scandurra

Previous studies have described Spain as one of the European countries with higher gender inequalities in time devoted to household unpaid activities. Recently, the construction of National Time Transfer Accounts (NTTA) for Spain showed that these inequalities are reproduced all through the adult life, but time used to look after younger individuals is more gender-balanced mainly because fathers are taking care of their children. However, former analysis do not examine if this is an age or a cohort pattern and whether younger generations are changing their gender specialization between unpaid and paid activities. We aim to analyze the age profiles of unpaid activities production and consumption by gender using time use surveys from 2002 and 2010 for Spain and applying the NTTA methodology. The analysis is enriched by differentiating the household activities by the level of education of the family members, thus considering the household socioeconomic intake. This provides a measure of stratification which is particularly interesting giving the big changes experienced by Spain in the time-span considered. Although only 8 years separate 2002 from 2010, during this period Spain has encountered strong transformations of the society such as an increase of female labor market participation and a consequential shift towards a double-pay earnings model, a fast-growing immigration and finally, from 2008, the Great Recession, which has implied among other issues, a massive unemployment. This paper aims at understanding to what extent gender roles have been affected within the distribution of production and consumption of unpaid activities performed at the household level. The NTTA methodology is both suitable to measure cohort changes given the disaggregation by single age of profiles, and to offer a thoughtful configuration of household unpaid activities, not only from the producers’ point of view, but also from the consumers’, who are the beneficiaries of those unpaid activities done within the family.

Children’s time use diary Relevance and reliability

Author: Eleonora Meli
Contributing author(s): Tania Cappadozzi, Laura Cialdea

Considering child as a social subject has changed the way we study childhood: New Social Studies of Childhood have introduced a sociological approach to surveys on children, reckoning the child as a real social actor, who is, on one hand, able to influence adult's lives and, on the other hand, able to take decisions with relation to the constraints of his environment. Moreover studying children time spent in different activities gives us the possibility to understand what kind of society we are building for new generations.

In Italy, Time Use survey collects children’s diaries in order to have information about children’s daily activities. We have been collecting these information since 1988, asking children over 3 years old to fulfill the questionnaire, up to 10 years with adults’ help, and over 10 years old by themselves. Quality reports allow us to consider these data reliable: non-response rate for children’s diaries is very low and also all the other quality indicators evaluated confirm the validity of data collected (for example: non-response rate for children aged 6-10 was around 5%, for adults the same indicator was a little higher).

Thanks to these data we have a representation of the average day for children by sex, age and municipalities. This representation supports the analysis on intergenerational transmission of gender inequalities, children autonomy, time spent studying, sleep time and internet exposure.

Antecedents of gender inequality in household work among Italian couples

Author: Tania Cappadozzi
Contributing author(s): Sabbadini Linda Laura, Spizzichino Daniele

 

Still today Italy is one of the European country with the the largest gender differences in household work: in 2014 women living in a dual-earner couple carry out 65,2% of the housework performed by the couple, 68,.4% of domestic work. However, over the past five years, between the last two editions of the Time use survey (2008/09 – 2013/14) the male contribution increases, resulting for the first time a reduction of gender asymmetry due to Italian men, while previously this reduction was mainly due to the cut made by women in domestic work.

This paper focuses on the changes taking place in the Italian couples, and tries to analyze, through regression analysis, what are the characteristics more associated with a better division of household work in couples, considering three possible theoretical explanations for the persistence of gender inequality in household work: time availability, relative resources, and conformity with traditional gender ideology. The 2013-2014 edition of the Italian Time Use Survey has a set of new questions on the perception of gender roles in couples, useful to understand the persistence of traditional gender role approach, in particular in the south of the Country.

Cross-country Comparability of 2010 Wave of Harmonised European Time Use Surveys

Author: Hannu Pääkkönen

The Harmonised European Time Use Survey HETUS was carried out for the second time in 2010. Statistics Finland harmonised the microdata from 18 countries with financing from Eurostat. The participating countries were: Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Hungary, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Turkey and United Kingdom. The data for the surveys were collected between 2008 and 2015. Statistics Finland instructed the participating countries to prepare three files from their data: an individual and household information file, a diary day file concerning background data, and an episode file concerning time use data. Statistics Finland checked the data and delivered the harmonised files to Eurostat. The files were sent and received using Eurostat's eDAMIS system. The metadata were collected with the European Statistical System Metadata Handler (ESS-MH) tool. Eurostat will produce tables on time use for Eurostat's online database. The presentation assesses the comparability of the database’s background variables and time use data based on the experiences gathered during the project.

test 2

Author: Theun Pieter van Tienoven

test

A time-use analysis of gender inequalities in couples in a context of underemployment and job precarity

Author: Rodriguez Paula
Contributing author(s): Gálvez-Muñoz, Lina; Rodríguez-Modroño, Paula; del Moral-Espín, Lucía; Vega-Rapún, Margarita

Specialized literature on the economic recession has highlighted the evidence of an employment crisis. This crisis, in most countries, although not homogeneously, is reflected in decreasing employment opportunities, increasing precarization and downsizing of real salaries in total income. Economic crises usually increase or transform pre-existing gender inequalities in relation to the distribution of times and workloads and the decisions around maternity and paternity. Solid research demonstrates, not only, that previous crises have caused an intensification of women’s work, undermining their job-seeking opportunities and possibilities, but also, that those individuals with more time, flexibility and mobility tend to obtain better results. As a result, it is essential to propose methodologies for analyzing the impacts of the employment crisis and the transformation in gender relations that include the study of time use. This paper presents the methodology and first results of a 3-year project (CSO2014-58378-R Crisis of employment and transformations in gender inequalities: a time use analysis) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness. Our methodology is based on a qualitative design with 4 focus groups and interviews to 32 heterosexual couples, in-depth interviewing both members separately, in two different Spanish regions with very diverse unemployment rates. The interviews, close to life histories, are divided into 4 sections: vital and couple trajectory; employment situation; everyday life and decisions in the household; and expectations and future perspectives. Additionally, we analyze whether this phenomena is reacting to different variables such as age or educational level and could affect individual relations to employment and their decision to start a family.

The Trends of Parents’ Unpaid Work Time and Children in Japan 2001-2011

Author: Tomomi Shinada

It is known that mothers in Japan spend more than an hour more on the preparation of meals than those in most European countries (data from 2000), but the amount of time Japanese mothers spend on the management and preparation of meals decreased between 2001 and 2006. However, the amount of time mothers spend on child care has been increasing quite significantly. The amount of time fathers contribute remains low, while work commitments appear to be increasing. These changes suggest that the amount of time Japanese mothers allocate to unpaid work is moving more towards European standards while that of the fathers is not. All in all, the time pressure of parents is becoming higher and higher.  

 

 This study explores the causes of these changes at the beginning of the 21st century by using some macro- and micro-data, examining Questionnaires A and B on Time Use and Leisure Activity. In addition, the problems parents experienced after becoming busier are addressed. The quality of family life is getting worse. In particular, children of primary school age are often staying alone at home, and this has been accepted in Japan. Many working parents with children in the 9-11 age bracket who work a combined total of 85 hours a week do not have any helpers or day care. As a result, citizens’ groups have opened “Child Restaurants” to provide dinner to children who are alone. However, the capacity of places where children can stay after school are insufficient for the number of children in need of such help. The current policies and their deficiencies are also discussed. 

Time use and care policies in Uruguay.

Author: Karina Batthyany

The well-being of individuals and societies is based both on the contribution of work done for the market and on the work done outside the market, whether in the field of private relations or social and community organizations . These two components of the work have had distinct visibility throughout history, focusing most of the studies on work at work that is done for the market.

Unpaid work and its main components have only recently been the subject of concern, measurement and analysis. The development of research that aims to address the quantification of un paid work is intended to reconfigure the work object by redefining it in its two key components: paid and unpaid work addressing the overall workload.

 The use of time thus constitutes a tool that allows addressing these dimensions of work and is an important indicator of the well-being of the population, and of social and gender inequalities. Their study contributes to the visibility of the sexual division of labor in families and the relationship between welfare sectors. Its measurementt in Uruguay has been mainly carried out through a series of time use surveys carried out since 2003. 

In addition, these surveys have been the basis of innovative care policies within the framework of the Latin American region. This presentation will address these aspects for the Uruguayan case.

Spousal influence: in the same or different rhythm

Author: Timo Toivonen, Timo Vilhelm

Spousal influence on time use has been studied quite intensively in some time use categories, for instance, in the context of domestic work and eating. However, spousal influence studies on time use in some other time use categories, such as in categories of leisure time, are very rare. Further, if we know that spousal influence is high i.e., the correlations in the use of time of both spouses are high (high spousal influence) in some activities, we do not know, whether spouses devote time to these activities at the same time episodes, i.e., in the same rhythm. This research focuses just on that. Data came from two recent Finnish Time Use Surveys from the years 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. It seems that in some quite highly correlated activities, as in eating, the activity happened also in the same rhythm. In some other activities, where spousal influence was also high as in book reading, it was found that this activity can be practiced quite individually, i.e. it does not necessarily happen at the same rhythm. In the end, explanations of these kinds of the same or different rhythms are tried to find on the basis of age, education and social class.

Children time use in Spain

Author: Margarita Vega Rapún
Contributing author(s): Monica Dominguez-Serrano, Lina Galvez-Munoz

There are not many studies in children time use this study and try to get to shed some light explaining how children distribute their time.  We use multivariate regression techniques to identify the key variables associated with children time use: Age, sex, family economic level, parental level of education, family members, employment situation of the parents, and household composition.This paper uses data from time use time survey in Spain during the period 2002-2003 2009-2010 that allow us to make comparisons.  This investigation also try to propose some policy implications derivate from the results and also suggest some methodological issues related to children time use data.  

How much do we invest in children? Combining the market and the time costs of childbearing in 26 countries

Author: Lili Vargha
Contributing author(s): Gretchen Donehower, Tanja Istenič

The economic resources parents and societies invest in children are substantial in every population and they are strongly linked to the wellbeing of children and development. While some of these resources are relatively easily measured, many of its components are not enumerated in national statistics and therefore it is much harder to get a clear picture of them. The costs of childbearing and human capital investments are consequently usually considered as only market goods and services, while the time costs by parents and grandparents are ignored (Gauthier et al 2004, Folbre 2008, Lee and Mason 2010, Ogawa et al 2009). The unaccounted contribution of households, most importantly childcare provided at home, is an important component of child investments. Moreover it is mostly done by women, who spend the ‘rush hour’ of life in a ‘time bind’ at work and in their ‘second shift’ at home (Hochschild 1997). Using time use surveys, we quantify these non-market costs of childbearing and estimate the different components of child investments by combining government and private market spending with the measures of time inputs. In doing this we follow the extended approach of the costs of childbearing (Becker and Lewis 1973, Willis 1973). The costs (and contributions) are measured both in monetary terms and in time in 26 countries at different stages of development. We also analyze how the investments are shared by women and men, and examine how childrearing costs and their different patterns are related to the level of fertility in a cross-national comparative context.

Time Use and Sustainable Urban Development: Exploring Conceptual Links

Author: Barbara Smetschka
Contributing author(s): Veronika Gaube, Edeltraud Haselsteiner, Dominik Wiedenhofer

The way urban household members use their time, the energy demand of households and the spatial organisation of cities entail each other. Available time - similar to available money - governs everyday decision making of household members concerning living space, consumption patterns and means of transportation. All of these activities are energy consuming (transport energy, heating/cooling energy, etc.) – some more, some less. Consequently, lack of time often translates into spending more money and more energy, severely constraining individual and household choices.

In the research project “UTE – Urban time and energy: A socioecological model for assessing time-use and energy metabolism” we analysed a range of hitherto unlinked datasets in order to explore the options for future development of sustainable urban energy.

We analysed time-use data of the latest Austrian time-use survey from the year 2011 delivering insights into time-use patterns of various household types. Additionally, we drew knowledge on time use preferences from a series of stakeholder workshops and semi-structured interviews with citizens in Vienna. We used the global multi-regional Input-Output (MRIO) model to calculate the energy and carbon footprint of Austrian household consumption. Data from the latest individual-level household expenditure survey for Austria (COICOP) were cross-tabulated with the time-use activities of Viennese citizens. Energy and carbon footprints can be attributed to household types and activities alike.

The conceptual links between time-use, energy use and sustainable pathways prepare for future scenarios based on different measures of the city’s administration which target time policy, participatory processes and energy saving. The main strategy has to be to look for energy savings through urban infrastructure and services, which support low-energy activities.

Time policy in cities has to encompass mobility, services and infrastructure and places where people may spend their time with a low energy impact. Time-use research will have an important role in future research on sustainable development.

Can valuations of unpaid work using the output approach benefit from time use data?

Author: Christopher Payne

This paper explores the UK National Statistical Institute's experience of producing valuations of unpaid work using both time use data and alternative approaches such as valuing outputs. The UK produces an annual valuation of unpaid work which is heavily reliant on an output based approach (i.e. estimating the units of a service which have been produced and then valuing them with a suitable market price). This approach allows estimates of the value of unpaid household services to be estimated on an annual basis, at relatively low cost and without the need for time use data. However, the lack of time use data sometimes comes at a cost and the outputs based approach is also not without limitations. The paper will show how different the valuation of unpaid work can be depending on whether you use an output approach or an valuation of inputs (based on labour costs) using time use data. But beyond the differences, the paper will also identify some of the benefits of combining time use data with valuations of unpaid work created using the output approach.

The Distribution of ‘Discretionary Time’ in Spain

Author: PEDRO REY ARAUJO
Contributing author(s): Fernández Fernández, Melchor

This paper applies the methodology of ‘Discretionary Time’, developed by Robert E. Goodin among others, to the Spanish case. While, in most time-use studies, the category of ‘free time’ is obtained by subtracting the time actually spent in paid labour, unpaid household labour and personal care to a twenty four-hour day, the category of ‘discretionary time’ is obtained by subtracting the minimally necessary time that ought to be spent in the three above-mentioned rubrics.

 

Generally, time-use studies report a very flat distribution of free time among the various strata of the population considered, hence not reflecting accurately the differential command people actually have over their own time. By combining in one single measure variables relative both to income and time-use, it is argued that differences related to class and gender can be unveiled more fruitfully.

 

This paper aims at offering three main findings. Firstly, the methodology of ‘discretionary time’ has never been applied to the Spanish case so far. The singularities of a country marked by very high levels of labour precariousness, unemployment, as well as a very asymmetric gender division of labour, will be cast in new light. Secondly, previous studies on discretionary time have paid great attention to the differential impact of the various welfare regimes in terms of the temporal autonomy of their citizens. However, up to date, no study has been conducted yet focusing explicitly upon the Mediterranean welfare regime. A potential gap in the literature will thus be filled.

 

Lastly, as already mentioned, Mediterranean countries (especially Italy and Portugal) are generally reported to have very asymmetric gender divisions of domestic labour. Casting such gender-related cleavage in terms of temporal autonomy will offer new insights regarding its differential distribution over the population in terms of various socio-economic indicators.

 

Why Do People Overwork at the Risk of Impairing Mental Health?

Author: Sachiko Kuroda
Contributing author(s): Isamu Yamamoto

This study employs longitudinal data of Japanese workers to investigate the relation between overwork and mental health. Conventional labor supply theory assumes that people allocate their hours of work and leisure to maximize personal utility. However, people sometimes overwork and, by doing so, impair their physical and/or mental health. We introduce nonpecuniary factors into the conventional utility function. Empirical analysis reveals a nonlinear relation between the number of hours worked and job satisfaction. We find that job satisfaction rises when people work for more than 55 hours weekly. However, we also find that hours worked linearly erode workers’ mental health. These findings imply that people who overvalue job satisfaction work for excessive hours, consequently damaging their mental health. We find that people form incorrect beliefs about the mental health risks of overwork, leading them to work for longer hours. These results might justify interventions, such as capping the number of hours worked to reduce related mental issues.

Time use: the source of information to assess unpaid work contribution to households’ income and national economy in Hungary

Author: Csilla Sebok
Contributing author(s): Tímea Cseh, Magdolna Komolafe, Klaudia Máténé Bella, Katalin Szép

Households carry out a lot of housework daily. This work is unpaid and services produced are consumed within households, so it remains invisible for economic statistics, presenting the economic performance of a country. Not only purchased goods and services but domestic work too contributes to living standard of a household.

Based on time use survey data the volume of domestic work has been assessed. Valuing time input with convenient wages, estimating consumption of fixed capital as the cost of household durables used for production, and other items household satellite account has been compiled in Hungary. The main results are as follows:

  • Based on the 2009-2010 time use survey, the population living in private households, aged between 15 and 84 years spent more time (214 minutes daily) on unpaid work on average than on productive work (164 minutes daily) that is included in national accounts.
  • Within household production providing food accounted for the half of working time spent on own household. The second most time is required by housing (25%), care of children and adults in need represented 19%. The lowest proportion of time is spent on clothing (7%).
  • The inclusion of the performance of unpaid work would increase the income of households by 37% - if the time is valued with net wages of a qualified market substitutes of the given work.
  • Household production is considerable in the performance of the national economy, its inclusion would result a 25% higher GDP in 2010.
  • Comparing the results of 2010 and 2000 reference years the structure of domestic work changed significantly: the inclusion of household production not covered by national accounts would have increased GDP at an 8 percentage-point higher rate in 2010 than in 2000.
  • The change over the 10 years was complex. From the time-use point of view the paper tries to identify the main causes of the change, and explain them by social trends.

The household satellite account was compiled based on Eurostat recommendations, in compliance with the principles therein – for the year 2000 earlier on and for 2010 currently.

Source: HCSO, 2016: Value of domestic work and household satellite account in Hungary. Statistical reflections, 21 December 2016. http://www.ksh.hu/apps/shop.kiadvany?p_kiadvany_id=501891&p_temakor_kod=KSH&p_session_id=793088039781603&p_lang=EN

Should we change the threshold of “elderly”? ~Elderly people in Japan are getting younger~

Author: Yoko Watanabe

 Since Japan has become the most aging society in the world, it is important for us to know the daily lives of elder people. Thus, I analyzed daily activities of people in their 60s and 70s comparing to the equivalent survey held 20 years ago.

 In October 2015, NHK conducted a survey of 12,600 people selected from the Basic Resident Register, asking them to record a pre-coded time-use diary in 15-minutes intervals over a 24-hour period. The survey results can be compared with the past surveys held every 5 years by the same method since 1995.

 I found two major changes from these data. Firstly, the lives of people in their 60s are becoming closer to that of people in their 50s and under because of the increase of employed persons among people in their 60s: an average time spent on work has increased and an average time spent on TV has decreased. These changes are caused by the change of laws affected by the revision of public pension system. I assume that this change of laws will further increase the number of employed persons in their 60s and their lives will become closer to that of people in their 50s and under. Secondly, the number of active people is increasing among people in their 70s, such as the ratio of people who do sport has increased and the ratio of people under medical treatment or recuperation has decreased. Not only that, active people in their 70s have become even more active.

In conclusion, considering that “elder people” have become “younger,” we may need to change the definition of “elderly” that currently means people aged 60 or 65 and over.

Time, Diseases of Affluence and the Story of the Mediterranean Diet

Author: Michael Bittman
Contributing author(s): Cathy Banwell, Charlotte Wilkinson-Bibicos, Eimear Cleary

Between the mid-1970s and the 1990s English speaking countries reduced the time devoted to eating by roughly one third. This is true for the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia. In contrast, in France eating time expanded over the same time period. Epidemiologists and nutritionists increasingly advocated the Mediterranean diet as the antidote to the high prevalence of diseases of affluence, especially co-morbidities associated with obesity – Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, colorectal cancer and osteoporosis, etc. Starting in the late 1950s, the link between the ‘Mediterranean diet’ and diseases of affluence became widely diffused by the 1990s. The evidence for the Mediterranean diet comes chiefly from epidemiological data backed up by chemical analysis of nutrition. However, consideration of other factors present in Mediterranean societies has been less systematically considered. This paper discusses the process of the diffusion of the Mediterranean diet. It argues for the idea that eating is a socially organised activity and that information about the allocation of time to activities in Mediterranean countries may be important.

The social lives of nonstandard workers

Author: Stacey Bosick
Contributing author(s): Katie Genadek

As a 24-hour economy increasingly comes to characterize the modern world, a greater number of Americans find themselves working nonstandard hours, that is, hours outside of the traditional 8am to 6pm range (Presser, 2005). In light of this trend, scholars have begun identifying consequences of working nonstandard hours - whether this work results in more workplace injuries, increased physical illness, and declines in mental well-being (Dembe, Erickson, Delbos, & Banks, 2006; Martens, Nijhuis, Van Boxtel, & Knottnerus, 1999; Wooden, Warren, & Drago, 2009). Sociologists, for their part, have investigated the impact of nonstandard working arrangements on marriages and families (Presser, 2000).

Our project more fully attends to the social implications of nonstandard work, asking how nonstandard schedules alter social schedules. We build on extant research in two central ways. First, we focus on the quality of time spent socializing. Research tells us that many couples strategically stagger their work schedules in order to manage childcare responsibilities (Mills & Täht, 2010). As a testament to their success, total time spent with children appears undiminished by nonstandard schedules. We argue, however, that this conclusion neglects aspects of quality. We aim to fill this gap by comparing the activities (e.g. attending child’s school performance versus sleeping) undertaken during “family time.” Second, our research initiates a deeper understanding of the social implications of nonstandard work by including a broader range of social relationships affected by these schedules. We look beyond the immediate family to understand how time spent with extended kin, friends, and work colleagues differs in quantity and quality among nonstandard workers.

 

To accomplish our goals, we draw on time diaries recorded in the American Time Use Study and employ propensity score matching to pair cases that look similar along key demographic characteristics including parental status, marital status, and occupational category. We limit variation between matched cases to the work hours performed. Our findings suggest ways in which socializing patterns may be implicated in the health and well-being consequences of nonstandard work. We discuss the implications of our findings to the literatures on work-life balance and social isolation. 

Poverty of time: measurements and determinants for Argentina

Author: Analía Calero

 

Recent studies in the field of welfare economics provide a number of arguments for which time is fundamental to the development of skills. Time-use surveys are relevant to know not only the extent of unpaid work performed by households and the distribution of family responsibilities, but to also known the participation of the population in recreational and voluntary activities. At the same time, deprivation of time can contribute to the depletion of human capital, the weakening of health and the decrease of well-being, as it constitutes a barrier in the conversion of capacities into effective functioning.

 

The hypothesis is that there is inequality in the use of time (measured in differential participation and also in hours dedicated to unpaid domestic activities, care, school aid and volunteering), mainly between men and women, which reinforce inequities in other socio-demographic attributes and that manifests itself in time poverty.

 

The objective of this study is to measure poverty over time in Argentina and to estimate its determinants based on the Survey on unpaid work and the use of time implemented by the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses in 2013 which has national coverage and List of activities as a method of collection.

 

Multivariate analysis of the time use as a reflection of the socioeconomic, gender and life cycle differences in the Colombian population

Author: Edith Johana Medina Hernández
Contributing author(s): Inmaculada Barrera Mellado y María José Fernández Gómez

The time use research has already obtained an important interest in the economic sciences and the politics, because it enables describing the activities that the people perform. And through the time use studies, the governments can plan the different social demands of the territories and analyze the labor market from a gender perspective.

Specifically, in Colombia the interest for the time use studies is recently. During 2012-2013, the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) conducted the first National Time Use Survey (ENUT Colombia). With the data from this survey is carried out this study.

This paper discusses the behavior of the Colombian population older than 10 years old, through the interpretation of 23 variables with a multivariate perspective. That is, with the intention not only in describing the behavior of each of them separately or knowing the average times dedicated to the development of specific activities, but also seeking to explain how the set of variables characterizes the population.

The analysis is conducted in three demographic dimensions: gender, socioeconomic levels and age groups. Hence, similarities and differences can be detected in relation to these characteristics.

This study does not propose testing any specific hypotheses, nor presenting a new methodological analysis proposal. Its goal is to exemplify the huge potential that the multivariate model, HJ Biplot, have on the scope of the time use analysis, despite the Biplot analysis have been scarcely used in this academic area.

 

The multivariate technique used shows that in Colombia, the time use reflects significant differences between age groups, socioeconomic levels, genders and regions.

The Colombian Population Time Use Through the Triadic Partial Analysis

Author: Edith Johana Medina Hernández
Contributing author(s): Inmaculada Barrera Mellado y María José Fernández Gómez

The multivariate analyses are not usually made in the time use studies, although these techniques are designed to interpret several variables together and their objective is not just to detail the behavior of each of them separately. The multivariate techniques facilitate the understanding of a multidimensional problem.

The time use analyses are usually performed with descriptions of the variables separately and it relates the hours and minutes that people dedicate to specific activities. Furthermore, there are few references of recent studies wherein the time use variables have been studied through multivariate analysis techniques.

In this paper, the Triadic Partial Analysis technique is applied to examine the time use of the Colombians older than 10 years old. It is based on data from the first Colombian Time Use Survey (ENUT 2012-2013). The results are obtained to interpret the behavior by gender, age groups and socioeconomic levels.

By means of the applied analysis is concluded that, differences are perceived between the variables that explain and characterize each one of the age groups. Moreover, within them, the behavior of the socioeconomic levels and genders are not similar.

This analysis is carried out with two references of previous studies. The Fraire´s research (2006) and the Kyeong-hoon and others academic work (2014).

 

The first one draw on the Statis Dual and the Multiple Factor Analysis with time use surveys conducted around the year 2000 in six European countries. The second one compares between 2004 and 2009, the time use of the Korean citizens over 65 years old and it uses the Correspondence Analysis and the Biplot Analysis techniques.

The effects of husbands' housework in the morning on wives' housework division satisfaction.

Author: IkHyun Joo
Contributing author(s): none

Today many researchers study on division of housework. Especially, those who analyze time use survey data focus on amounts of dual earner couples’ housework time. Their studies emphasize on amounts of husbands’ housework time. The more housework husbands do, the less housework wives do. Then husbands’ doing housework has effects on fertility eventually. 

However, few scholars pay attention to when husbands do housework and when wives do house. I believe in this is very important issues because wives are dissatisfied with division of housework although many husbands do already a lot of housework in South Korea.

What is important thing is not husbands’ amount of housework time but when husband do housework. Most wives are too busy every single morning. If husband do housework after work, probably it does not helpful to their wives. 

In this paper, I analyze Korean time use survey data in 2014. My dependant variable is dual earner couples’ housework division satisfaction. My hypothesis is that the more housework husbands do in the morning the higher wives housework division satisfaction score is. First of all, I check type of husbands’ house work, amounts of their housework time, and when they do housework. Husbands do not do housework in the morning. They do housework only in the evening. Mostly they do a kind of shopping with wives. Actually, these kinds of housework do not helpful to decrease wives’ housework. 

According to the analysis results, wives are busy with doing housework morning and evening. Exactly, a lot of wives do housework at around eight o’clock and twenty o’clock. Analysis show that husbands do housework in the morning, their wives’ housework division satisfaction score is higher than others significantly.

This research emphasizes the need to change of thinking direction. We have focus on amounts of time until now. However, timing matters as much as the amounts. The implication is husband should do housework by flexible work arrangement. Today, this arrangement spreads all over the nation in South Korea. I think it is helpful to increase dual earner couples’ housework division satisfaction.

 

Effect of the Online Game Shutdown System on Adolescents’ Sleep Time in Korea

Author: OUM SEWON
Contributing author(s): Sewon Oum, Hanjin Bae, Jaerim Lee

                The purpose of this study wasto investigate whether the online game shutdown system, which the Korean government implemented in 2011, increased adolescents’ sleep time. In many countries including Korea, adolescent game addiction has become a social problem due to its relation with adolescents’ delinquency and sleep deprivation. Parents often have difficulties controlling their adolescent children’s time plying online games, particularly at night. The Korean government enacted the shutdown system in 2011 that blocks children younger than 16 years old from playing online games from 12 a.m. to 6 a.m. Blocking their access encourages children to sleep and helps prevent online game addiction. Several studies have examined the effects of the shutdown system on reducing the time playing online games. However, little is known about the effects of the shutdown system on adolescents’ sleep time. Given that the objective of the shutdown system is to ensure that adolescents sleep instead of playing online games, it is crucial to examine the relationship between the shutdown system and adolescents’ sleep time.

                Our data came from the Korea Media Panel Survey conducted by the Korea Information Society Development Institute (KISDI). The respondents reported how much time they spent playing online games and the number of hours they slept, measured in 15-minute intervals, for three days. In our analysis, 198 adolescents who were 8th graders in 2011 and 137 adolescents who were 8th graders in 2012 were included. The difference in differences (DID) method was used to examine the net effect of the shutdown system by analyzing whether the changes in sleep time from 2011 to 2012 differed between the treatment group, the target group of the shutdown system, and the control group. In this study, the treatment group was adolescents who played online games for at least 15 minutes during a 24-hour period, and the control group was adolescents who did not play online games for at least 15 minutes in a 24-hour period. We controlled for gender and family income.

                Our descriptive analysis showed that a small number of 7th and 8th grade adolescents played online games between 12 a.m. and 6 a.m. before the enactment of the shutdown system. The DID analysis found that the effectiveness of the shutdown system was not significant. These results imply that the online game shutdown system did not have a significant effect on adolescents’ sleep time. Despite the limitations of this study, it meaningfully contributes to the literature as the first study that examined the effect of the shutdown system on adolescents’ sleep time. We suggest that future researchers consider psychosocial, environmental, and family-related variables and sleep quality when testing the effect of the shutdown system.

Independent and Shared Leisure and Life Satisfaction in Korea

Author: Yun-Suk Lee
Contributing author(s): Ju-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Jean Song, Phil-Suk Kim, Kyusun Shim

The literature appears to agree that more leisure activities do not always lead to better subjective well-being and examine possible mediating factors between leisure and well-being. Some studies argue that individuals report higher levels of satisfaction as they share leisure time with their spouses more often. But these studies are limited for three reasons. First, they mostly depend on convenience samples, weakening generalization of their conclusions. Second, they generally employ responses to direct questions about frequency of shared activities to measure amounts of time spent alone and together, but it is well-documented that respondents tend to overestimate their time spent together with spouses. Third, they do not consider the possibility that subjective implications of independent and shared leisure may vary by types of leisure activities such as media uses, cultural events and sport activities. Analyzing the information from a sample of marital couples from the Korean Time Diary Survey in 2014, we examine 1) how much time wives and husbands spend on leisure and above three leisure activities alone and with their spouses and 2) whether these amounts of time are associated with life satisfaction. We find that both wives and husbands spend more time on leisure alone than with spouses. Also we find that while, consistent with previous studies, both females and males are report more life satisfaction when they spend more time together on media use, wives report higher levels of satisfaction when they spend more time on cultural events alone and husbands report higher levels of satisfaction when they spend more time on sport activities alone. These results suggest that we need to consider gender and leisure types in order to get a more complete understanding of the relation between shared leisure and subjective well-being

Weekend Couples’ Time on Housework in Korea: Importance of Gender

Author: Yun-Suk Lee
Contributing author(s): Ju-Hyun Kim, Yoo-Jean Song, Phil-Suk Kim, Kyusun Shim

Recently many romantically involved partners maintain two separate residences for diverse reasons in many countries. Increasing numbers of scholars examine the implications of this newly emerging living arrangement to couples’ daily lives, subjective wellbeing and relational quality. But existing studies are conducted mainly with convenience samples of specific occupational groups in developed countries. Analyzing information from a sample of “weekend couples”, marital couples where wives and husbands live separately in Korea, from the Korean Time Diary Survey in 2014, this study 1) compares weekend and typical couples in their amounts of time spent on housework and 2) examines whether some factors that the literature on housework identify to influence performance of household tasks, are associated with amounts of time that wives and husbands in weekend couples spend on household chores respectively. We find that while females in weekend couples use much less time on household chores than their counterparts in typical couples, males in weekend couples assign much more time to housework than those in typical couples. These differentials in time on housework by living arrangements and gender are especially evident to meal preparation and home cleaning. We find that working hours and numbers of adolescents at home are statistically significantly related with time on household tasks for both wives and husbands in weekend couples, supporting the time availability perspective. We find that gender role ideology matters only for husbands’ time on household chores. Results suggest that maintenance of separate residences may lead to equalization of time use patterns between two partners.    

Does Parenting Matter? Mediating effect of parenting between social class of parent’s and children’s internalization outcome in the U.S.

Author: Jaein Lee

Researchers found social class determines parenting practices (Cheadle & Amato, 2011; Chin & Phillips, 2004; Lareau, 2011). Even though there are debates what drives these differentials in parenting style (culture, social resource), both ethnographic and quantitative studies agree there are class differentiations in parenting (Utting & Pugh, 2004). Researchers also found parenting do matters in children’s mental health. Parents’ careful approach to control or guide children’s behaviors helped children cope with everyday stress(Hardy, Power, & Jaedicke, 1993). Parental warmth, support also reported to have positive impacts on children’s lower mental health problems compared with hostile control from parents(Domitrovich & Bierman, 2001).

These findings suggest impacts of class differentiated parenting do matter to mental health problems of children(Galambos, Barker, & Almeida, 2003; McLeod & Shanahan, 1993; McLoyd, 1990). However, there are several limitations of prior studies regarding class, parenting and mental health. Especially for ethnographic studies, even though they provide extra details of this social phenomena, questions still remained to be addressed with limited external validity (Amato & Fowler, 2002). Also, quantitative studies only include limited aspects of parenting instead of capturing comprehensive measuring of parenting (Hoff, Laursen, Tardif, & Bornstein, 2002). More seriously, most of studies regarding the connection between parenting and children’s mental health didn’t include time use measures.

 I plan to use three waves of the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID)[1] to see how social class differentiated parenting impacts on children’s mental health – internalization problems – in childhood and adolescent period. One of the strengths of my paper is including time use measure in parenting, spending time in organized activities adult participated, skill building, group based activity time. This paper will contribute to the literature by using nationally representative data of the U.S. to examine how parenting can mediate class differentiated mental health outcome of children, impacting paths of their future health outcomes.  

 

[1] A national representative longitudinal study. The CDS-I was collected in 1997 on a sample of 3,563 children aged 12 and under in 2,395 eligible PSID families. The following waves were collected in 2002 (CDS-II) and 2007 (CDSIII)

Change in media use in Japan over 20 years: How to research the usage of “new media”

Author: masayuki hayashida

 

NHK has been conducting the nationwide “Time Use Survey” every five years since 1960. The survey results since 1995 show the aging of “TV audience.” Besides the latest survey held in October 2015 indicates that the middle-aged also spend less time watching television, bringing down the average time spent on this activity of the whole nation. The doers’ ratio for radio listeners has been decreasing since 1995. So has the doers’ ratio for newspapers. Meanwhile, the doers’ ratio for viewing TV programs on videos, HDDs, and DVD (including recorded TV programs and of programs streamed on the internet) is rising among middle-aged and elderly people. The doers’ ratio for “internet as a hobby, entertainment, or cultural activity” is increasing among younger generation. Amidst these changes, one of the challenges is how to research the usage of “new media,” such as the intermittent use of the internet on smartphone for a short period of time, and “communication” via social media. The first half of my presentation will be dedicated to the change of media use in Japan during 20 years, and the second half to how to research the use of “new media”.

 

Extended childcare time for married couples with infants in Japan

Author: Takeshi Mizunoya

The purpose of this paper is to define ‘extended childcare time’ as total time of (i) childcare as main activity, (ii) childcare as simultaneous activity and (iii) various ‘with-child’ activities, to estimate extended childcare time for married couples with infants and to clarify various aspect of childcare. Using the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities in 2011, extended childcare time is computed by cross tabulations between main activities and simultaneous activities and between main activities and with-child activities. Extended childcare time on weekdays (weekends) was 156 (450) minutes for husbands and 652 (713) minutes for wives, while childcare time as main activity was 24 (84) minutes for husbands and 196 (147) minutes for wives. In conclusion, various aspects of childcare are revealed in terms of combinations among main, simultaneous and with-child activities. In addition, the wife’s disproportional childcare burden compared to their husbands is confirmed since both childcare time as main activity and extended childcare time for wives are quite longer than those for husbands.

Unpaid work in Mexico: a municipal analysis of gender differences

Author: Mauricio Rodriguez Abreu
Contributing author(s): Brigida Garcia

Mexico has been recognized by its advancement in the agenda for gender equality in terms of institutional, normative and budgeting efforts (UN Women, 2015). However, despite this progress, substantial gender inequality is still a reality in the country, given the uneven progress and asymmetries at the state and municipal level (UNFPA, UN Women, & OACNUDH, 2012). For this reason, and with the commitment to subscribe to the advancement following the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda, it becomes important to identify dimensions associated with these persistent disparities. Using the 2015 Mexican Intercensal Survey we use information regarding care provided to household members, housework and purchasing food and household items, we estimate Female/Male ratio for participation and time in unpaid activities by age, marital status, population size, state, and municipality. In order to identify regions with high inequality, we then estimated Moran’s I for geographical autocorrelation and identified clusters with higher and lower inequalities in participation in unpaid activities.

Findings

Ratios of participation are higher for activities associated with child care and housework, meaning that more women than men are engaging in this type of activities in significant proportions. A similar pattern is observed for time in these activities. identifying clusters of high and low inequality in participation and time in unpaid activities. Clusters for high inequality are found in traditional poor and indigenous areas, but also in Northern Mexico, which is recognized as a conservative area. On the contrary, the areas in the Yucatán Peninsula and central Mexico (around Mexico City) tend to display lower inequality in the activities considered in the present analysis.

 

Employment transitions and time in unpaid housework: does ethnicity matter?

Author: Mauricio Rodriguez Abreu

The way in which men and women allocate their time into different activities has been analyzed following different perspectives. It is well known that the increase in women’s participation in paid labor force has not been accompanied by a similar increase in men in housework and care activities, resulting in women being burned by the second shift (Hochschild, 1989). This behavior has been explained using different analytical approaches such as socialization of gender roles, relative resources and time availability constraints (Coltrane, 2000). In the United States, gender relations intersect with racial relations, resulting in differential effects for women across the racial/ethnic spectrum.

 

In the present paper, I test for changes in time allocated to unpaid housework after an employment transition for men and women of three racial/ethnic categories: non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic. Using the American Time Use Survey 2003-2015 I identify individuals who experience a transition between employment and unemployment and analyze how these transitions affect time allocated to unpaid housework. Since the ATUS is a cross-sectional dataset, I use propensity score matching technique to assess the average effect of these transitions for two trajectories: 1) employment to unemployment, using those who remain employed as control group; and, 2) unemployment to employment, using the unemployed as control

 

Preliminary findings indicate that transitions into employment are associated with declines in time allocated to housework, particularly for women of Hispanic origin; conversely, transitions into unemployment result in greater gains in time for housework for non-Hispanic white men and Hispanic women. These patterns, in combination with rates of participation in housework, indicate a highly gendered behavior of these transitions, particularly among Hispanics. 

Time Use and Well-being. Highlighting indicators introducing qualitative aspects of time perception.

Author: Garcia Diez Susana

 

“Zeitwohlstand!” has become over the years a popular notion/idea in Germany when discussing about well-being[1]. With this idea the claim is made that human and societal well-being means more than only material well-being based basically on monetary terms. Together with the demand of a multidimensional approach that integrates economic, social and ecological regards the idea that the individual perception on such subjects has to enrich/complement our knowledge based on otherwise “objective” information, is nowadays broadly accepted.

 

One important component when trying to realize our assessment and reflection of well-being is the extensive analysis of time. By extensive I mean not only the measurement and evaluation of time units used and their allocation among different tasks but also the more broadly analysis concerning questions on disposition/availability of time (scarcity), the generation process as well as the management and distribution of time, but not the least the even more complicated issue of compiling information on time experiences, emotions, prospects, etc. For this purpose Time Use Surveys (TUS) may offer some possibilities to gather such information, i.e. if they allow a more flexible understanding of the notion of time going beyond the mere understanding of time as clock-time[2].

 

One possibility discussed in former works (Garcia/Legarreta 2014) was to allow a notion of time based on four metaphors: time as a resource, time as environment, time as prospect or horizon and time as body[3]. This multi-faceted approach would demand other kind of analysis rather than the one mere following utilitarian logic (quantification and aggregation of individual outputs)[4]. In this case instead of using a quantitative cantril-scale approach (how satisfied are you from 0 to 10) to capture individual perceptions on and experiences with time, I suggest to use more open questions developed with help of the metaphors, which would let the respondent to reflect openly/broadly on her/his own understanding of time lived and experienced.

In this article I will analyze evidence regarding subjective experiences and perceptions of individual time from new questions included in the more recent survey of the German TUS 2012/2013.

[1]Rinderspacher, J. P. (Hg.) (2002): Zeitwohlstand. Ein Konzept für einen anderen Wohlstand der

Nation. Berlin; Von Jorck, G. und Zimmermann, Th. (2015): Zeitwohlstand für alle! Ökologisches Wirtschaften, Nr. 4/2015. Oekom Verlag. Institut für ökologische Wirtschaftsforschung. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Zeitpolitik (DGfZP)

[2] Adams

[3] metaphors originally proposed by Ramos, R.(2007)

[4] INSEE, Gershuny, Krueger (more elaborated in chapter XX),

 

Time Use Surveys Made Easy - proposal for panel discussion

Author: Indira Hirway
Contributing author(s): Other panel members: Michael Bittman, J Gershuny, Jaques Charmes

 

Panel Proposal

 

Time-Use Surveys Made Easy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Several reviews of the time-use surveys in the global south have concluded that these countries are far behind the goal of producing quality data using rigorous concepts and methods and that most of these countries will take years before they can produce quality time use data (Hirway 2016, Charmes 2016, Esquivel 2016, Budlender 2008, and Hirway 2010).  As regards modular time use survey, the experts recommend that one should avoid using modular time use survey (where time use survey is conducted as a module to a national survey). Though it is an easy option, because there are several problems with the concepts and methods of these surveys that fail to produce quality time use data[1], for good results it is desirable to use 24-hour time diary based stand alone survey for data collection.

 

 

 

It is also observed however that many countries in the global south, in spite of using 24- hour diary method, have failed to use rigorous methods and failed to produce quality data. This is because (1) countries find it difficult to follow the time diary methods of data collection and then analyse the raw data systematically, (2) countries tend to ignore these surveys, as they do not yet appreciate the utility of time use data in national policy making, and/or (3) frequently they do not have the funds necessary for conducting these time consuming and expensive surveys.  Looking to advantages of time use surveys in understanding critical socioeconomic and in national policy formulation as well as the importance of time use data in implementing the universally accepted Sustainable Development Goals and the resolution on conceptual framework of work put up by the ILO (ILO 2013), it is necessary to simplify time use surveys – without compromising the quality of the data so that countries will find it easy to conduct time use surveys and produce quality data all the same.

 

 

 

The main objective of this proposal is to explore how time use surveys can be made easy in a way that countries find it easy to conduct time use surveys and produce good quality data.

 

 

 

Major Areas of Exploration

 

 

 

The above reviews have pointed out several weak points in the concepts and methods used in conducting time use surveys by many countries in the global south. These weaknesses are less than satisfactory background questionnaire, poor sampling, non-representative time sample[2], etc. These weaknesses can be addressed by a well-designed guidebook, as these problems are basically related to problems of a household survey.  A good guidebook can address these problems and also harmonize concepts and methods so that the data will be of sound quality and globally comparable. However, the problems that countries are likely to find too difficult to overcome are (1) data collection through a 24-hour time diary and (2) analysis of the collected raw data.  It will be useful to simplify these two tasks

 

 

 

Problems Faced in Data Collection:  Time-us surveys differ considerably from other household surveys or other surveys, as under latter surveys questions are put to units (households, members of the household, production enterprises, business or service enterprises) to which respondents are expected to reply.  The questions could be open-ended or with recorded alternatives. Respondents usually find it easy to respond to these questions.  Time use surveys on the other hand want (1) respondents to fill in 24-hour time diary according to the time spent by them on each and every activity chronologically, (2) they are also expected to report simultaneous activities (i.e. when two or more activities are conducted simultaneously) and divides the time spent between simultaneous activities and (3) respondents are also expected to report the specific context in which activities are carried out.  When there is no 100 % literacy, which is the case in many countries in the global south, interviewers are expected to perform the above jobs, which is more difficult as respondents are expected to remember or interviewers are expected to help the respondents in remembering the time spent on each and every activity performed by respondents.   

 

 

 

Our reviews have shown that many countries frequently do not conduct national time use survey or stop after conducting one national / large scale time use survey because they find it difficult to manage 24-hour time diary.   For example, NSO in Indonesia has observed that the problems that they face in conducting time use surveys are (1) rural people have no concern with time, (2) many of the respondents are not interested responding to time diaries even when interviewers interview them, and (3) the diaries therefore are half filled. This happens even when the time slots are of 1-3 hours (Hirway 2016).  Duncan Ironmonger also has observed that in several island countries, time does not make much sense to people (UNDP 2005).  Many countries have stopped conducting time use surveys after the first survey frequently because the quality of data is suspected. Many countries have therefore found short-cuts by conducting modular surveys using stylised questions, or compromised on the methodology by selecting a very small non-representative sample, or selecting time sample that is too narrow, or by not collecting time spent on simultaneous activities[3].

 

 

 

We think that some simplification can be explored in the following areas:

 

 

 

Making time diaries light:  Under the light time diary approach, some surveys provide a pre-determined list of activities and ask the respondent to choose from these activities while filling in the diary, (i.e. light diary). On the other hand some countries do not provide a list and ask respondent to describe his / her activities. Codes to these activities are assigned later on by investigators (i.e. full diary). However, full diary calls for lot of work on the part of respondents, and interviewers. Coders / analysts also find it a little difficult.  It is also more costly. There are several approaches to design light time diaries. It would be useful to explore the relative strengths of these approaches against the full diaries.

 

Redesigning Background Questionnaire and Reformulate Context Variables: There are three major instruments of data collection under time use surveys: background questionnaire, time diary and context variables. The most difficult part is filling in time diary.  It is observed that there is likely to be some substitutability between time diary and background questionnaire and between time diary and context variables.  If this substitutability is tapped fully the burden of time diary can be reduced. It would be useful to explore this area to make time use survey easy to manage.

 

 

 

Designing Detailed Instruction Manual and Intensive training:  24-hour time diaries filled in by interviewers in countries not fully literates causes another set of problems:  the role of the interviewers is very critical here, as they have to get the right response from respondents. The interviewer has to establish good rapport with respondents and get their replies without asking any leading question. He has to collect the right data without any biases. Interviewers frequently have to get the timings of the activities when the respondents do not wear watches or use clocks.  Designing of a detailed instruction manuals intensive training of interviewers and strong follow up are very critical here, as they can make the task f data collection  (Hirway 2003). Our review has observed that insufficient training and sketchy instructional manuals tend to result in poor quality data, particularly when the data are collected by interviewers (Hirway 2016). 

 

Making analysis of time use data easy

 

It is frequently observed that time use survey data are lying unused because countries do not have the required expertise to analyse raw time use data meaningfully. They also find it difficult to use time use data with other datasets which are collected through conventional methods, as both the datasets are not comparable automatically and one has to make them compatible with each other before using them together.  It will be useful to explore this area for simplification of time use surveys.

 

 

 

In the end I would like to add that Independent, stand alone and 24-hour diary-based time use surveys need not be conducted every year, as time use of people do not change within 5 years. We therefore recommend that a time use survey may be conducted at an interval of 5 years or so. In the event of a crisis, when it is important to understand changes in the time use of people in a short period, a small scale time use surveys, issue / sector / region based, may be conducted.

 

 

 

The Panel:

 

 

 

1.      Indira Hirway (coordinator)

 

Director and Prof of Economics, Centre For Development Alternatives, India

 

2.      Michael Bittman,

 

Former President of IATUR and Emeritus Professor, Australia

 

3.      Jacques Charmes, Directeur de recherche émérite, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Centre Population et Développement (CEPED), Pères

 

4.      J Gershuny,

 

Professor of Economic Sociology Director, Centre for Time Use Research, Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College, Oxford University

 

 

 

The Chair of the panel is not yet finalized.

 

=================================

 

[1]Though a modular time use survey is attractive because it is like a usual household survey, it produces poor quality of data in multiple ways. It restricts the content, coverage time use data as per the subject of the main survey to which it is attached. Again, in most cases, modular surveys use stylized questions by asking questions on how much time respondents spent only on a given short list of activities. It has been shown conceptually and empirically that the quality of a modular survey is much inferior to the data collected through a time diary.  Even when a modular time use survey is based on a 24-hour dairy based survey, it cannot be as large as a full-fledged national time use survey, as it will increase the respondents’ burden beyond a limit.  It is likely to confuse investigators and respondents with the two different methodologies.   Again, the respondent stress and investigator stress are also likely to be high, which may affect adversely the quality of TUS data. 

 

[2]Frequently time use surveys are conducted for a day or a month or a season. Such surveys do not represent the total time of people and therefore the data are not representative.

[3]Our reviews show that any countries do not collect data on simultaneous activities and/or do not include the data in analysis

 

Households’ consumption spending and home production responses to retirement: Do retirees substitute consumption spending?

Author: Jim Been
Contributing author(s): Susann Rohwedder, Michael Hurd

We analyze the effect of the spouses’ retirement on simultaneous consumption spending and home production decisions of the household. The analysis uses a simultaneous equation model with correlated random effects to model the simultaneous household decisions while correcting for unobserved heterogeneity. For causal identification, we use Double and Triple RD Designs to exploit discontinuities in Social Security benefits claiming. Our results suggest that the consumption drop due to retirement is only partially compensated by an increase in home production of the retiring household member. We do not find any cross-spouse effects of retirement on home production. Using retirement expectations as instrumental variables, we find an elasticity of zero between total market consumption and home production. Nonetheless, the results suggest that home production is important in replacing components of market consumption that are well-substitutable by home production. However, this component is only about 11% of total consumption spending prior to retirement. All evidence suggests that much of the home production increases at retirement are due to more non-work time available rather than substituting consumption.

Time use survey in EUSTAT: An experience of 25 years.

Author: Jose Jabier Zurikarai
Contributing author(s): Enrique Morán Aláez, Matxalen Plágaro Alonso, Matxalen Legarreta Iza

It was back in 1992 when Eustat (Basque Statistical Office) began preliminary work to launch its first Survey on Time Budgets. Data collection took place in autumn 1992 and spring 1993. From the very first moment we took certain decisions that defined our survey. We don’t have data for the whole year and each individual in the survey has to give response just for one day of the week, for the whole 24 hours. This was a very synthetic approach as we don’t have weekly data for each individual and weekly data must be made by grouping data from different individuals. But it gave good results.

We should also mention that, after having developed these works, in 1996 Basque Parliament made a request to EUSTAT to elaborate the Household Production satellite account. So there was a real interest around the use of the results of the survey.

On the other hand, we have carried out the survey every five years and now we have long data series. After five editions we will be ready for the sixth next year. As a result, our survey is a powerful tool to measure social change. We are able to compare different years and detect changes that are happening in our society. Some of them are quite clear, others are not. Regarding these issue we have to mention our close collaboration with university researchers. In this survey, we have published two complete reports with several articles that include some deep analysis of data that give even more value to our job. There are some remaining subjects. For instance, simultaneity of activities hasn’t been analyzed deep enough. And for the coming future, web based survey for data collection is a big challenge we have to deal with. Or we could also mention the family composition and the distribution of activities, clearly underdeveloped.

Declining Female Labour Force Participation and Increasing Domestic Duties in India: What Do Time Use Studies Reveal?

Author: Ellina Samantroy
Contributing author(s): nil

Abstract

The declining female labour force participation and gender differentials in employment has been a matter of serious concern for policy makers in India. Though, the Beijing Platform for Action 1995 reaffirmed the commitment to promote women’s economic independence for women yet, there are widening gaps that need to be covered for achieving Sustainable Development Goals 2015. It is true that the labour force surveys like the National Sample Surveys (NSS), have increased their attempt to recognize women's work by asking probing questions that seek to establish women's involvement in economic activity. However, this is still defined to include only participation in work for the household farm or enterprise and does not include housework, childcare, care of the sick and old, and related activities associated with social reproduction. 

The present paper is contextualised amidst the debates on unpaid work and its non-recognition in national accounting statistics in the context of declining female labour force participation and increasing participation of women in domestic duties[1] in India. There is also an attempt to understand participation of women in household and related activities (domestic duties) thereby exploring intra-household dynamics and role of socio and cultural norms in understanding gender relations in the household. The paper also reflects on the importance of time use surveys for not only capturing the working lives of women but also being instrumental in addressing the larger concerns of redistribution of work and human welfare.

The paper is largely based on the reports of the National Sample Surveys (NSS) and largely draws from the NSS Report on Participation of Women in Specified Activities alongwith Domestic Duties 2014. Employment estimates of the 15-59 age group is taken for all kinds of analysis from various NSS years with the concept of usual activity status being taken into consideration[2] or all kinds of analysis. Reports of the National Time Use Survey conducted in 1998-99, Report of the Pilot Time Use Survey in 2013 and the report of the Sub-Committee on Time Use Activity Classification are also considered for analysis.

 

 

[1]NSS has captured domestic duties in the following codes namely; Code 92-attended to domestic duties only, 93- attended to domestic duties and was also engaged in free collection of goods (vegetables, roots, firewood, cattle, feed, etc.), sewing, tailoring, weaving, etc. for household use.  

 

[2]The usual activity status relates to the activity status of a person during the reference period of 365 days preceding the date of survey

Daily feelings of US workers and commuting time

Author: José Ignacio Giménez Nadal
Contributing author(s): Alberto Molina

In this paper, we analyze the relationship between the feelings reported by American workers throughout the day and the time devoted to commuting, with these feelings being evidence of the non-monetary costs of commuting. Using the Well-Being Module of the American Time Use Survey for the years 2010, 2012, and 2013, we analyze how commuting relates to the feelings of workers, and we find that more time spent on the daily commute is related to higher levels of fatigue and stress during commuting, while also being associated with higher levels of fatigue during activities of market work, non-market work, and child care. Since more commuting time is related to increased fatigue in non-commuting activities, our results indicate that the non-monetary costs of travelling to and from work may be greater than expected. This should be a consideration for employers who aim to fully compensate their workers for the costs of commuting.

What does the “long-hours culture” mean for women in Hungary?

Author: Csilla Sebok

The first part of the presentation examines the changes of time spent on paid work amongst employed women by social-occupational groups between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 in Hungary. As a result of „de-industrialization” trends of the labour market, the structures of both the economic sectors and the occupations have changed. The first had an impact on the distribution of jobs by gender, while the latter influenced the proportion of the blue- / white-collar positions. For women, thus, the number of attainable jobs has increased, especially in professional, leadership and routine services employments. This meant polarization of the labour market not only in terms of qualification, but also in terms of the length of working time.

In the second part of the presentation I analyse the connections between the length of time spent on paid work, and other daily activities, especially household chores and child care. As - in the limited 24-hour daily timeframe - the extended working time hours inevitably mean that the time spent on other activity(ies) will decrease. When the paid job becomes longer, parents may need to decide on how to spend their remaining time. However, part of the activities related to child care - for example the physiological needs of infants - does not depend on individual choices. This approach may reveal which group of women is mostly impacted by the reconciliation difficulties of work and maternal roles, as well as help to understand the fatigues emerging at certain life-stages of individuals.

The analysis is based on two Hungarian time use surveys that were carried out in 1999-2000 and in 2009-2010.  

Time Use and Activity Patterns in Bangladesh: Evidence from the First (Pilot) Time Use Survey 2012

Author: Mobinul Huq

        Bangladesh carried out its first national level time use survey in 2012, and published a summary report containing an overview of the main findings (Time Use Pilot Survey 2012, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), 2013).    Recently the national statistical agency, Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, made the micro-level survey data available to researchers, which allows  researchers for undertaking in-depth analyses for identification and better understanding of the determinants of variations in any observed differences in time use pattern.  The purpose of this research is to undertake such an in-depth analysis.  Specifically, the paper presents overall patterns of time use and activity participation rates.  Then variations by different demographic and socio-economic characteristics are analyzed and presented. Finally, the gender and urban-rural differences in time use patterns are decomposed into explained and unexplained gap.  The finding from this research will help policymakers in formulation of more effective and targeted social programs. 

 

Key Words:  Bangladesh; Developing Country; Time Use Pattern.

A fine balance: work and education in the lives of children living in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam

Author: Patricia Espinoza
Contributing author(s): Catherine Porter

We explore time use trends of 26,400 girls and boys aged 5-17, living in four low- and middle income countries: Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam, between 2006 and 2014. We examine the evolving relationship between time spent on education/study and work as the boys and girls age and how these differ over gender and socio-economic background.

We use Young Lives data, a unique longitudinal study following the lives of 12,000 cohort children living in the study countries over 15 years, and four rounds of data collection. We take advantage of the fact that since 2006, the study has collected detailed time use information for the sample children as well as all other children aged 5 to 17 living in the household. The data also include extensive child, household and community-based information.

Initial results show striking differences across time and countries: for example, rural Ethiopian children at the age of five are already working on average for two hours per day (on chores, or helping with household farm/enterprise), and as they grow older, never spend more time on education/study than they do working in a day. The day looks very different for urban children in Peru and Vietnam, who spend 8 hours per day on their studies, and time spent working increases above two hours only above the age of ten. The gap between children in poorer and richer households widens as the children age in all countries. Gender differences are not always as expected: Vietnamese girls spend more time than boys on study as they reach teenage years, whereas in India and Peru they drop out of school more often. 

 

To the best of our knowledge, this is the most extensive comparable panel-based investigation of this topic over a long age range, covering multiple countries, and with extensive background information. We aim to identify children who are at risk of excessive time-pressure due to work demands, by socio-economic background, gender and household position. 

Time use in housework and care work. Advances and methodological challenges for gender inequality studies.

Author: Legarreta Matxalen
Contributing author(s): Cristina García Sainz

Data on the use and distribution of daily time reveals that the greatest gender inequalities take place in housework and care work: the gender gap is greater than in other daily activities, such as paid work, leisure and social life, travel and personal care. Moreover, women assume a greater total workload than men, which reduces their leisure, training or employment time.

The communication aims to study the evolution of gender inequalities in housework and care activities in a twenty year period time. For that purpose, we will present a longitudinal analysis of data produced through Time-Use Surveys carried out, every five years, by the Basque Statistics Institute-Eustat (1993-2013) in the region of the Basque Country (Spain) to a sample of 5,000 individuals.

The main results show that, as in other countries, the gender gap on time devoted to household activities decreases, but the inequalities do not disappear. In general, the percentage of people who spend part of their daily time doing this work tends to have grown over the last twenty years, while the dedication of those who participate in it has decreased slightly. This creates the impression of a certain "democratization of housework and care time". However, deeper analysis reveals the persistence of inequalities and the uneven evolution of time devoted by women and men to housework and to care activities. The conclusions raise the advances and certain methodological challenges for Time Use Surveys in order to carry out a more exhaustive analysis of gender inequalities in time devoted to housework and care.

 

Keywords: housework and care, total workload, gender inequalities, “democratization tendency”, methodological challenges.

Twelve compared to eighty-eight.

Author: Garcia-Sainz Cristina

Traditional economic analysis  in the field of health economics take into account the  resources needed  to finance health workers, infrastructures, equipment and pharmacological costs. But rarely take into account the costs of unpaid time devoted to health maintenance and care during illness.

The aim of this paper is to present an advancement of a research on the costs of unpaid time dedicated to the care of the chronically ill. Its title summarizes the working hypothesis: the annual time spent by paid workers of the health system and social services is only 12% of the total time consumed by the chronically ill. The remaining 88% is unpaid care time, produced mostly by women in households.

The greatest difficulty in arriving at an estimation of the time consumed is conceptual, since at present there is a great heterogeneity in the definitions of care and its operationalization. For example, the English term care, the French soins and the Spanish cuidado  mean in each language somewhat different things, which makes comparison difficult. They often have a more psychological content and availability than physical and transformation. They  are concurrent with other activities and are located at different times and spaces. Therefore, the international consensus of some basic definitions has been proposed.

We analyzed the Time Use Surveys carried out in Spain by the Statistics Institute in 2003 and 2009, and a dozen surveys that contain useful information about time spent on patient care, especially the National Health Surveys and the European Survey on Health in Spain (2014).

Social and health policies related to aging and dependence consume a significant part of the Nation Budget. It is necessary to reach harmonization agreements because they are based on indicators of current and future demand for care, as well as on indicators of potential care providers, which are currently very poorly developed.

The Effects of Family Policies on Gendered Division of Domestic Work: A Comparative Analysis of OECD Countries, 1983-2009

Author: Sun Mi Cho
Contributing author(s): Chan-ung Park

Family policies have two types of provision, cash and service. Previous studies on family policies and gender inequality have focused on the amount of public expenditures, not the types of provision. We argue that service benefits would decrease gender gap in domestic work, while cash benefits would increase it. We also contend that such effect of family policy would vary across household earning types based on women’s participation in paid labor. To examine the effects of family policy types on gendered division of domestic work, we applied a multilevel model to the MTUS (Multinational Time Use Study) data, covering 12 countries with individual time diaries. We find that cash increases the gender gap of housework and cooking time within a couple, while service decreases it. We also demonstrate that family policies affect women with paid jobs more than those without paid jobs. Our results suggest that how to provide family policy benefits matters, not just the amount of benefits, to gender equality in domestic work by protecting the choices of women in undertaking paid or unpaid work.

The division of housework and child care in dual-earner families with young children in Estonia - choice or inevitability?

Author: Pille Ubakivi-Hadachi
Contributing author(s): Gerli Nimmerfeldt, Kadri Täht, Margarita Kazjulja, Jelena Helemäe

Dual-earner families have become prevalent in contemporary societies, as the share of women working outside the home has constantly risen. Despite the fact that paid working hours of women have augmented substantially, the portion of housework and childcare undertaken by men has not grown equally. Although men have increased their share in housework, women still contribute disproportionately to spending time with children and to domestic unpaid work. The proposed paper aims to explore the gendered nature of time-use patterns in families. It delves into the decision making mechanisms behind the task and responsibility division between parents of young children to shed light on the question of gender segregation in domestic work.

We have determined that decision-making regarding time use in families is guided by parents’ careful (un)conscious selection between differentially available, but often “gendered” choices. Both mothers and fathers experience strain when trying to come to terms with partially imposed time use habits which they do not perceive as adhering to their preferred or adopted gender roles. We would argue that in certain contexts parents’ educational background does not hold as strong control over time use habits as does their gender and the related perceptions of gender norms. At the same time, the flexibility of work hours may be a great relief to the family as a whole, expanding the array of choices regarding time use, however, even these choices are often seen as filtered through the normative aspect of gender.

 

By relying on quantitative time-use data on mothers’ and fathers’ time spent on work, household, children, recreational activities etc, we are able to reflect upon their differing patterns of time use. Referring to qualitative interviews, carried out with both parents in dual-earner families from different socio-economic backgrounds (N=25, three interviews per family, 75 interviews in total), allows us to identify and understand the effects of gender on time-use patterns at differing levels. Applying a mixed methods approach and going beyond individual level analysis permits us to analyse systematically both the general time use habits of these families as well as the adaptive strategies of couples in order to understand how labour market positions, flexibility of work schedules, educational backgrounds as well as individual gender ideologies and prevalent social norms influence the way time use patterns ultimately evolve.

Time Use data and Labor Force Status for Pakistan: Policy Implications

Author: Fareena Malhi
Contributing author(s): NA

In this paper, Time Use Survey (TUS) Data (2007) is used to calculate labor force status, comparing them with Labor Force Survey (LFS) (2007-08) estimates. Our results show that there is huge discrepancy in estimates from two data sources, implying that there is dire need for more accurate data. For economically inactive individuals, according to LFS, the gap in estimates is larger for women as compared to men, however the average time spent by these men in labor market work is higher. My findings show that, on average, 50% of women classified as economically inactive individuals by LFS, participated in labor market for 42.8 minutes/ per day according to TUS. Further, the labor force statistics are explored by gender, region (rural/urban) and type of work (formal/informal/own account) at district level to see the effect of development policies on otherwise invisible economic agents. The results are crucial in indicating the direction of development funds based on the characteristic and composition of labor force, accounting for regional differences. Hence, for a country like Pakistan, that is following Decent Work Country Programme by ILO, it is vital to get more accurate labor force estimates at decentralized level to identify region specific policies.  

New challenge of senior Executives training in public Sector Time Use Perspectives

Author: seyed kamal Vaezi

 

New challenge of senior

Executives training in public Sector

Time Use Perspectives

Seyed kamal Vaezi,Phd

University of Tehran

E-mail: vaezi_ka@ut.ac.ir

 

 

             

 

ABSTRACT

 

In an indirect process for determining the eligibility of training institutions to participate and create policy innovations in state e-government programs it has directed that institutions are eligible for participation  and delivering new courses if they provide  a goo structured plan for senior officials to encourage them for active participation.

 

A good management of time for training of officials include flowing items:

 

Implementing a structure to evaluate, monitor, analyze and predict fundamental changes in management philosophy especially in E-government concepts.

 

Develop priorities plan to organize new training activities to reengineer nationwide development of knowledge societies concept based on innovation policies.

 

Empowering public managers with cyber training ensure the public sector is better equipped with the appropriate talent for the right and innovative job.

 

This paper deals with the existing policies need to be re-examined, and new policies developed. While new training innovations must be recognized based on knowledge society concepts, it is also mentioned that monitoring agencies have greatly assisted their career. In this process monitoring agencies for executive training serve as a public brain system to advocate changes that will improve executive training practices concerning time management aspects.

 

Keywords

 

Time management, E-government, Innovation policies, training system, executives

 

 

 

Disconnecting from work/connecting with children: Mothers' and fathers' parent-child activities, disturbance by paid work and child mental health

Author: Anne Roeters
Contributing author(s): Kirsten van Houdt

 

Although it is often assumed that children benefit from spending time with their parents, children’s mental health may be harmed if this time is disturbed by work demands. The current study investigates the possibility that the disturbance of parent-child time by paid work inhibits parents from connecting with their children and meeting children’s needs. Analyses are based on the “New Families in the Netherlands” data from 2013 (N= 639 fathers and 849 mothers in dual-earner families who are partly nested). We estimate structural equation models in MPlus that explain children’s mental health as indicated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results suggest that child mental health is higher when the frequency of father-child activities is higher and the level of disturbance by work is lower. We do not, however, find any effects for mothers. Moreover, the association between the frequency of parent-child time and child mental health is not moderated by the level of disturbance by work.

Between temporal autonomy, wealth in time, and quality - methodological reflection on qualitative and quantitative aspects of Slow Lifers’ time use.

Author: Justyna Kramarczyk

Due to the continuously growing significance of human efficiency and flexibility in contemporary capitalist societies, the concept of ‘slow life’ has been under scrutiny for many years. The idea of slowness has been widely described in popular science and academic literature as an antithesis of modern acceleration (e.g. Craig & Parkins 2006; Honore 2011; Rosa 2013), also as one of new alternative lifestyles (Andrews 2006; Zeestraten 2008), as well as in terms of broader cultural reaction in the globalized world (Osbaldiston 2013). 

Bearing in mind these theoretical perspectives, I would like to examine slow life as a manifestationof ‘wealth in time’ (Reisch 2001), which includes a notion of having discretionary control over time and experiencing it in a better quality. It seems to be crucial to take into account miscellaneous definitions, meanings, and emotions associated with varied daily temporalities (qualitative aspects of time). Furthermore, it is worth getting more knowledge on the allocation of time, temporal patterns, and types of strategies to keep this personal, temporal sovereignty (quantitative aspects of time).

For this reason, using empirical analysis, I would like to provide methodological reflection concerning both quantitative and qualitative attributes of time in Slow Lifers' everyday reality. The primary objective of the presentation is to shed some light on fundamental elements of 'temporal autonomy', such as the quality of time, work-life balance, and sense of agency. I intend to achieve it through the findings of a research project carried out in 2015-2016 in Poland. In addition, I am going to prove that mix of in-depth interviews and time-use diaries allows understanding of various strands of temporal phenomena. 

Beyond the (spatial and temporal) boundaries of the traditional workplace: a case study of academics

Author: Julie Verbeylen
Contributing author(s): Ignace Glorieux

Communication technology has changed the way in which work can be organized. It enabled work to extend beyond the office walls and office hours. Literature on the possible consequences of extensification of work is twofold. On the one hand, temporal and spatial flexibility are a resource for dealing with high demands and conflict situations. It is said to be useful for balancing both family and work demands, and for reducing conflicts between work and home. But on the other hand, communication technology has made the boundaries between work and private life blurry and is enabling work to intrude into the home. Traditionally, work and family are coupled with different temporal regimes that have their own set of time norms, with different parts of the day and the week assigned to different activities (related to work, leisure, family, … ). Redrawing boundaries is necessary and challenging when one combines different, often competing, temporalities. It seems that the possibility to work from home can be both a blessing and a curse (‘paradox of flexibility’). In this contribution, we examine the temporal and spatial boundaries of the contemporary workplace and what this means for the work-life balance of its employees. We use diary data to investigate the way academic professors, who combine high work demands with high levels of flexibility, address their time and manage their working life. Our research is based on 170 time-use diaries, with 24 hours’ registration for 7 consecutive days, collected in 2015 among professors at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Belgium.  

Mining the educational gradient hypothesis on child care time use: a cohort and sequence analysis approach

Author: Theresa Thies
Contributing author(s): Theresa Thies, Georgios Papastefanou, Seung Eun Cha

According to the educational gradient hypothesis, parents with higher education levels are more interested and capable to invest more in the time quality of childcare than parents with lower education achievement. Looking at the current state of research, we find convincing evidence, that in industrialized countries high educated mothers and fathers seem to be spending more time with their children than low educated (Dotti Sani & Treas, 2016; Guryan, Hurst & Kearney, 2008; Sullivan, Billari & Altintas, 2014). Second, it seems to be well confirmed that in industrialized countries the overall time parents spent with their children has increased over the years (Dotti Sani & Treas, 2016; Manchini & Pasqua, 2011; Gauthier, Smeeding & Furstenberg, 2004; Sullivan & Gershuny, 2001).Few studies also bring together the two above findings and prove, that the existing educational gradient has increased over the years, indicating a cultural effect, in which the high educated increase the time spent with children way more over the years than the low educated (Dotti Sani & Treas, 2016; Sullivan, Billary & Altintas, 2014).These empirical corroboration have two flaws: a) social change is simply conceived as change between periods or time points, not taking into account differentiation of cohort succession and ageing as processes of social change b) the total diurnal sum of time used for child care does not take the sequential interweaving of child care activities with all the other everyday life activities into account.Out study is aimed at contributing at these aspects of the educational gradient thesis by using the GTUS data of 1991/92, 2001/02 and 2012/13. First we start with considerations about cohort changes as generational differentiation by also separating period and age effects of total childcare time. We will then have a look at the educational gradient. Second we extend the educational gradient thesis to sequential patterns of child care, like diurnal spread of child care activities, as additional indicators of time use quality.

ReferencesDotti Sani, G. M., & Treas, J. (2016). Educational Gradients in Parents' Child‐Care Time Across Countries, 1965–2012. Journal of Marriage and Family, 78(4), 1083-1096.Gauthier, A. H., Smeeding, T. M., & Furstenberg, F. F. (2004). Are parents investing less time in children? Trends in selected industrialized countries. Population and development review, 30(4), 647-672.Guryan, J., Hurst, E., & Kearney, M. (2008). Parental education and parental time with children. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22(3), 23.Mancini, A. L., & Pasqua, S. (2011). Asymmetries and interdependencies in time use between Italian parents. ZEW Discussion Papers, No. 11-005.

Sullivan, O., Billari, F. C., & Altintas, E. (2014). Fathers’ changing contributions to child care and domestic work in very low–fertility countries: The effect of education. Journal of Family Issues, 35(8), 1048-1065.Sullivan, O., & Gershuny, J. (2001). Cross‐national changes in time‐use: some sociological (hi) stories re‐examined. The British journal of sociology, 52(2), 331-347.

How Ethiopians’ Use Their Time?

Author: Asalfew Abera Gebere

The first ever Time Use Survey was conducted in Ethiopia in February 2013 by CSA. It was designed to measure time spent on paid, unpaid work and non-productive activities during the 24 hours of persons aged 10 years and older. A two stage stratified random sampling design was used to select samples of 20,280 HHs and 52,262 persons aged 10 years and older from rural and urban areas. The result of the survey explained using participation rate and average time spent of actors. The participation on SNA activities was higher for both men (78%) and women (79%) in rural areas, likely because of rural agricultural activities in primary production. However, average time spent in SNA activities was greater in urban areas (500 minutes for men Vs 340 minutes for women). Women’s participation and time spent in water and fuel collection far outpaced than men. This highlights the strong norms about the role of women and girls in these activities. On the other hand, substantial gender inequalities are evident in time spent on Extended SNA works (unpaid works). The time spent on extended SNA work was higher in rural areas (243 minutes for men Vs 354 minutes for women). The limited access to resources among rural households may therefore, increase responsibilities in extended SNA activities.  In specific terms, women in rural and urban areas spend more time (74, 54 minutes respectively) on child care than men (8 minutes). But men spend more time on adult care. Time spent on non-productive activities also tends to be lower for girls and women. Thus, these gender inequality demands further research and policy intervention to close the gap.

Bargaining Power and the Household Division of Labour: Evidence from 2008 China Time-Use Survey

Author: PAN XUHUA
Contributing author(s): Shi Fengdan, Pan Xuhua, Caryn Bruyere and Maria S. Floro

Analysis of time use patterns and the role of bargaining power enhance our understanding of household dynamics and factors impacting women’s labour market participation in China. It is a useful tool for policymakers seeking to promote gender equality and improve women’s well-being. Using a sample of 13,505 couples from the 2008 China National Time Use Survey (CTUS), this study examines the relationship between bargaining power and the amount of time allocated to household and care work and market work. It is found that wives spend a longer time working in a day (556 minutes) than husbands (520 minutes). The findings also show that the impact of bargaining power on women’s time in unpaid work is complicated. Husbands with higher bargaining power (as proxied by the education gap between spouses) spend less time on housework and more time on market work. However, the education gap does not influence women’s time spent on household work, while the bargaining power proxied by age gap between spouses does not affect the husband’s household work time. Having young children increases the time spent in housework for both spouses, but the wife’s housework increases considerably more than her husband’s (89.3 minutes vs. 29.8 minutes). The presence of older, retired household members reduces the wife’s housework and increases her market work, indicating their support in domestic chores performed by women.

Uncovering the black box of (non)response in time-use surveys

Author: Petrus te Braak

Time-use studies are a highly valued research tool to better understand behaviour and the context of conduct. Mainly due to the high participation costs of respondents, the response on these studies is usually relatively low. This raises questions on the selectivity of the response and, correspondingly, the representativeness of the data. This paper attempts to answer these questions. Specifically, we use the Belgian Time Use Survey-data (BTUS) from 2013 for this task. These data have the advantage that they can be combined with the Belgian Labour Force Survey 2013 (LFS). This means that we have an unprecedented potential of information of non-participants, allowing us to take a very broad range of background variables into account. The paper begins with a bivariate description of the (non)response. In a second phase, we hypothesise that 1) “busy” (in an objective and subjective sense of the concept) people are less inclined to participate in a time-consuming time-use study; and 2) that people who are socially well integrated tend to participate more often. To test these hypotheses we use multivariate modelling in order to control for other potentially influential background variables. The paper concludes with some recommendations on how to deal with the nonresponse.

Gender differences in the cultural participation of the elderly

Author: Francisca Mullens
Contributing author(s): Jessy Siongers & Ignace Glorieux

Several studies indicate gender differences in cultural participation, they show a higher participation rate in receptive highbrow cultural activities among females. These gender differences are often linked to traditional gender roles concerning life spheres and labour division; men are considered responsible for the production of economical capital of the family and women for status- and cultural capital production. Some scholars argue that gender related leisure patterns are more the case among older generations since they have grown up with stricter gender role patterns. On the other hand, when people reach retirement, their life alters severely. Conceivably this life event alters the life world of men more than that of women. Women tend to have more family and domestic responsibilities while their work path is also more fragmented then that of men. Therefore, men and women’s leisure time and activities may also change in different ways after retirement.

 

Few research has analyzed older people’s leisure lifestyles and participation in cultural activities using time diary data. For this presentation we want to analyze the cultural participation of elderly (≥ 55 years). To this end, we use the Flemish time use study of 2013 (total n=3260) encompassing 887 respondents aged 55 or older. Our analyses are twofold. First we will compare the time spent on leisure and cultural activities and the type of activities active and retired elderly engage in, in particular the gender related differences. Second, we will investigate which factors (socio-economic background, occupational career, etc.) influence the cultural participation of elderly men and women.

Time with father and mother. Living arrangement of children after divorce.

Author: Marc Ajenjo Cosp

In 2010, the Parliament of Catalonia passed the law to regulate co-parenting. Before this law, shared custody was more common in Catalonia than in the rest of Spain. Differences have increased after the implementation of this law in Catalonia because it promotes co-parenting,and enhances gender equity after union dissolution.

The aim of our paper is to study the prevalence and characteristics of shared custody, and explore how the Catalan Civil Code from 2010 is applied by the judicial practice.

Our main hypothesis is that shared custody –compare to sole custody– benefits gender equity, and flexibles the agreements between ex-spouses.

Two different analyses are run. First, we analyze 2278 court judgments that determine children’s custody in the eight family courts in Barcelona during 2014. The study variables are: conflict between partners, type of custody, children’s age and gender, type of union and nationality of both members of the couple.

Second, by using a sample of 740 cases, we focus in child maintenance and family arrangement, following 3 main dimensions:

-          The analysis of the number of days and nights spent with each parent, as an indicator of total time with children.

-          The analysis of night spent with each parent according to the day of the week: weekends, working days or holidays. This is a good indicator of work-family conflict that mostly affects mothers.

-          The analysis of the variables associated with an egalitarian family arrangement between the father and the mother. 

Time Use Surveys and Unpaid Care work in India: From Recognition to Redistribution

Author: A Anupama Uppal
Contributing author(s): Navjot Singh

The unpaid work although remain invisible, yet it is very important to enable the productive members earn in the market. When recognised, it constitutes a considerable proportion of the GDP (many studies have estimated it to be around 25 per cent to 33 per cent) in most of the developing South Asian economies. They also have a great impact on the well being of the care provider as well as the receiver. The poorer households had greater direct as well as opportunity costs of providing care but these costs are not distributed equally among men and women. This inequality has long term bearing upon the women’s ability to be productive in the labour market through choice of sector and nature of activity, late entry, low mobility, less experience etc. in the job market. Thus, mere recognition of the unpaid work through time use surveys is not enough, it calls for carefully framed policies for reducing and redistributing this cost for ensuring gender equality and empowering women through increased participation in the marketed activities. In countries like India, this task becomes even more tedious as the first step of recognising this work has not been taken even after 22 years of Beijing Platform for Action. Various methodological and political hindrances are there to move the things even by an inch in case of having a nation wide time-use survey. In this context, a few micro studies have been conducted by researchers but they have not set the policy direction in terms of redistribution of the unpaid work performed in private domains of the households. Hence, this paper is an attempt to put forth the challenges as well as the prospects of time-use surveys in India in order to have concrete policy steps to redistribute the unpaid work in order to achieve gender equality.

Fatherhood, Motherhood and Subjective Time Pressure in Australia, Korea and Finland

Author: Lyn Craig
Contributing author(s): Jude Brown, Jiweon Jun

Time pressure is a ubiquitous feature of modern life, often attributed to escalating demands of work, especially when combined with raising a family. For many people, becoming a parent dramatically increases feelings of being rushed and pressed for time. This signals a potentially important difference in subjective wellbeing between parents and nonparents, with research suggesting the effect is stronger for women than men. However, the demands of parenthood and of combining work and family can be ameliorated or exacerbated by the social and policy context in which people live, so gender patterns in both objective time allocation and subjective time stress are likely to differ cross-nationally. Work-time regimes and social and economic policy measures are relevant to the scale of demands of work and family, whether they fall similarly upon mothers and fathers, and how they can be managed as children grow. To provide new evidence on the relationship between social and policy context and an important aspect of parental wellbeing, this paper uses nationally representative time use data from Australia, Korea and Finland to investigate how parenthood and the age of the youngest child is associated with the recuperative activities of leisure and sleep and the productive activities of market and non-market work, and associations between parenthood, age of youngest child and subjective time pressure. We find the subjective time pressure associated with parenthood and age of the youngest child is different in each country, for men particularly. The different patterns may be related to national work time regimes, how parenthood impacts men’s and women’s time use in each country, and from cross-national differences in social attitudes towards father involvement and intensive motherhood. 

Nature and Visibility of Women’s Work in India

Author: Bornali Borah

Accounting for women’s work in the workforce, however, suffers from many biases—conceptual and measurement related issues implicit in the identification of women workers within the workforce—besides cultural biases. The visibility of female participation in the workforce is limited to their availability and participation in the economic production or market production. Work that falls outside the System of National Accounting definitional framework, however, influences the nature and character of employment work of unpaid workers, who are mainly women, in the labor market. The social norms that underlie intra-household resource allocation and gender divisions of labour, tend to restrict their participation, mobility, and choice of employment, leading to their overcrowding in low-productivity/low-wage jobs and their overall inferior status in the paid labor market.

 

Women in India are seen burdened with triple responsibilities of breadwinning, domestic chores, and child (and elderly) care. This triple burden of work for the women and hence the persistence of gender disadvantage is evident from the longer working hours for women compared to men, giving rise to the phenomenon called ‘time poverty’.  This paper will study the gendered nature of women’s work and implications on their visibility, or lack thereof in the workforce using time use survey. This paper is based on a study conducted in Meghalaya, a North Eastern state of India, which tends to show greater participation of women in the workforce which is quite ahead of the national average.

Disconnecting from work/connecting with children: Mothers' and fathers' parent-child activities, disturbance by paid work and child mental health

Author: Anne Roeters
Contributing author(s): Kirsten van Houdt

 

Although it is often assumed that children benefit from spending time with their parents, children’s mental health may be harmed if this time is disturbed by work demands. The current study investigates the possibility that the disturbance of parent-child time by paid work inhibits parents from connecting with their children and meeting children’s needs. Analyses are based on the “New Families in the Netherlands” data from 2013 (N= 639 fathers and 849 mothers in dual-earner families who are partly nested). We estimate structural equation models in MPlus that explain children’s mental health as indicated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results suggest that child mental health is higher when the frequency of father-child activities is higher and the level of disturbance by work is lower. We do not, however, find any effects for mothers. Moreover, the association between the frequency of parent-child time and child mental health is not moderated by the level of disturbance by work.

The Effect of Universal Early Childhood Education on Parental Time Use

Author: Seth Gershenson
Contributing author(s): Stephen B. Holt, Taryn Morrissey, Katie Vinopal

We use a quasi-experimental triple-difference (DDD) research design to identify the intent to treat (ITT) effect of Florida’s universal Pre-K mandate on parental time spent with children in developmentally beneficial activities. The DDD identification strategy compares parents of eligible four year olds to the parents of ineligible three year olds within Florida, and to the parents of four year olds in neighboring states that did not adopt a universal ECE program at the same time, before and after the policy was implemented[TM1] . As expected, the policy reduced the total time parents spent interacting with children, since children who attended ECE necessarily spent less time at home. Somewhat surprisingly, however, the program significantly reduced parental time spent reading to children. Specifically, an average daily reduction of about 10 minutes is observed for mothers and fathers. It also reduced the fraction of total time spent with children in reading activities by three percentage points, suggesting that the policy affected the allocation of parents’ time as well as total time spent with children. Results do not imply that children are receiving less total time engaged in reading with adults, however, as other research has found that children who attend ECE and Pre-K programs are exposed to more than ten minutes of reading with adults per day.

 [TM1]Using only 2005 and 2006 data, right? I think we should broaden our years/sample size (at least 2003-2008) to be able to control for family characteristics, particularly employment, and interact with SES. I think the employment effect is what we’re capturing, and it seems disingenuous not to acknowledge the role employment is playing in this (particularly as I’ve done work on child care/pre-K and parental employment – see http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11150-016-9331-3 

 

Further, Cascio and Schnazenbach found decreased overall time but increased mother-child “quality” time among low-educated moms, no effects among high-educ moms, which I think is likely happening in FL too.

 

In general, I think we should try to follow Cascio & Schnazenbach’s analysis more closely, in terms of control group and covariates. We have the added benefit of having pre and post data, but our control group now is much more limited than theirs. I also think we should do a sensitivity test analogous to Cascio & Schnazenbach’s analysis, using only 2006 and later data comparing to states without pre-K.

 

Gelben & Isen find that effects persist after Head Start ends, arguing for a long-term investigation too.

The Effect of Adult Children’s Hours Worked on Time Support for Elderly Parents: A Natural Experiment in Korea

Author: Erin Hye-Won Kim
Contributing author(s): Changjun Lee, Young Kyung Do

 

Despite its significant policy implications, little is known about the causal impact of adult children’s hours worked on their time support for elderly parents. This paper examines how workweeks affect how often adult children visit their elderly parents, using a natural experiment in Korea. The government reduced its legal workweek from 44 to 40 hours, gradually from larger to smaller establishments between 2004 and 2011. Using the exogenous variations in workweeks, we create a binary instrumental variable (IV) indicating whether a worker’s legal workweek has been reduced.

 

Individual workers’ data on actual work hours, establishment size, and other variables come from 2005 to 2012 waves of Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, which is a nationally-representative annual survey. Using the IV, this paper estimates the causal impact of the four-hour reduction in the legal workweek with reduced-form regressions. For comparison, we also estimate pooled regressions of the visits on actual workweeks with the IV. For both models without and with the IV, we also estimate models which additionally control for individual fixed effects.

 

The results from the reduced-form regressions showed that hours worked had a negative impact on adult children’s time support. In contrast, we did not find any significant relationship between the two in the pooled regression without the IV, thereby demonstrating that estimates from observational studies tend to fail to capture the causal impact. We discuss the implications of men’s long working times for the well-being of the extended family in Asia, and suggest regulating working time as a potential policy instrument for improving work-family balance.

 

The Effect of Adult Children’s Hours Worked on Tine Support for Elderly Parents: A Natural Experiment in Korea

Author: Erin Hye-Won Kim
Contributing author(s): Changjun Lee, Young Kyung Do

 

Despite its significant policy implications, little is known about the causal impact of adult children’s hours worked on their time support for elderly parents. This paper examines how workweeks affect how often adult children visit their elderly parents, using a natural experiment in Korea. The government reduced its legal workweek from 44 to 40 hours, gradually from larger to smaller establishments between 2004 and 2011. Using the exogenous variations in workweeks, we create a binary instrumental variable (IV) indicating whether a worker’s legal workweek has been reduced.

Individual workers’ data on actual work hours, establishment size, and other variables come from 2005 to 2012 waves of Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, which is a nationally-representative annual survey. Using the IV, this paper estimates the causal impact of the four-hour reduction in the legal workweek with reduced-form regressions. For comparison, we also estimate pooled regressions of the visits on actual workweeks with the IV. For both models without and with the IV, we also estimate models which additionally control for individual fixed effects.

The results from the reduced-form regressions showed that hours worked had a negative impact on adult children’s time support. In contrast, we did not find any significant relationship between the two in the pooled regression without the IV, thereby demonstrating that estimates from observational studies tend to fail to capture the causal impact. We discuss the implications of men’s long working times for the well-being of the extended family in Asia, and suggest regulating working time as a potential policy instrument for improving work-family balance.

 

The different facets of Time Perspective theory

Author: Edina Dombi
Contributing author(s): Gábor Orosz

Time Perspective is an unconscious and individually different attitude towards time. It has three main parts: past, present and future. The factors of ZTPI (Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory) are the following: past negative, past positive, present-hedonistic, present-fatalistic and future-oriented (Zimbardo and Boyd, 1999). It has fundamental impact on relating to people and interpreting events and it is learnt at an early age through influences of culture, religion, social class, education, and family. There are many different facets of Time Perspective: Teacher can intervene and make children to be future-oriented (look for goals) or they can change drop out rates of school children. We can also use it to combat all addictions, to enhance health behaviour or to cure PTSD.

In the presentation a short review on the theoretical background will be provided, then I would like to summarize our research about Time Perspective theory. There are four main pillars of the presentation, namely the structure of the short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory(Orosz, Dombi, Tóth-Király & Roland-Lévy, 2015), academic cheating behavior and Time Perspective(Orosz, Dombi, Tóth-Király, Bőthe, Jagodics & Zimbardo, 2016), Balanced Time Perspective and ego-resiliency(Orosz, Dombi, Farkas & Zimbardo, 2017) and finally a future-oriented research about creating a new scale, Putting the Self in the Future(Dombi et al., 2017) scale.

Time perspective is discussed within the framework of social, personality and health psychology in this presentation. From our results it can be seen that time perspective is linked to a wide variety of personal characteristics, habits, everyday activities, attitudes and personality traits.

Class gradients in physical activity – a time-use perspective on health guidelines

Author: Jef Deyaert
Contributing author(s): Teresa Harms & Ignace Glorieux

Societal and technological changes over the last few decades have led to an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB). Three of the most noteworthy changes are: the evolution from a labour-intensive industrial to a service-driven ‘desk job’ knowledge economy, the democratization of motorized transport, and the introduction of time and labour-saving electrical devices at home and in the workplace. Concerns about the health impact of these changes have motivated many researchers to explore the effects of sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results of these studies, together with a strong and somewhat moralistic assumption that individuals should – given their knowledge of the beneficial impact of physical activity – embrace it as an essential element of daily life resulted in the development of physical activity guidelines that have been rolled out internationally by the WHO and adopted by many national health agencies.

Much of the current health research into social inequalities in health behaviour focuses on the relationship between physical activity levels and socioeconomic status (SES). Here, physical activity is often equated with leisure time physical activity and SES is often only approximated using rudimentary measures, mostly education, income or occupational derivatives. Unsurprisingly, the majority of these studies indicate a clear class gradient in physical activity, with the lowest levels reported by the most socially disadvantaged groups.

In this paper, we broaden the scope of analysis and explore the association between social class and physical activity levels in all life domains – paid work, leisure time, household work and chores, family care and travel. We investigate this relationship using a new and promising methodological approach by studying physical activity using time-use data from a population-representative Belgian Time Use Survey conducted in 2013.    

Estimating Level of Physical Activity in the Light of Time Use Survey, Turkey 2006

Author: DEMET BOREKCI
Contributing author(s): Mahmut YARDIM

Background: World Health Organization reports that each year 3.2 million death is occurring as a result of physical inactivity. In order to measure adequate physical activity, researchers have been using several methods including questionnaires like IPAQ and GPAQ, and accelerometers. This research has been conducted with the idea that time use surveys, being free of recall bias can be operationalized to assess physical activity of the population.

Method: The microdata of the Turkish Statistical Institute’s Time Use Survey 2006, - the first harmonized Time Use Survey in the country- was analyzed in this research. Data was collected among randomly chosen 5070 houses, 11.815 households all around Turkey. All households older than 15 years old filled in a diary on an assigned week day and a weekend day. To yield physical activity level, recorded times for activities (in minutes) were multiplied with assigned compendium values (metabolic equivalent, MET) of the American Time Use Survey. Only non-sedentary activities larger than 3 MET were added up. ANOVA was performed by using SPSS-22 Program software. Eta square for the effect size and 95% confidence interval values were calculated.Effect size values of 0.01, 0.06 and 0.14 were categorized as small, moderate and large effects respectively.

Results:The number of participants for weekdays and weekends were 5305; 5299 men and 5517; 5502 women. The largest proportion of participants was accumulated in the 25-44 age groups (46%). The 28% of males and 74% of females were not in labor force. Effect sizes (eta square values- η2) for male and female respondents were calculated as 0.07 and 0.03, 0.04 and 0.03 and 0.28 and 0.16 for the age groups, marital status and working status respectively. Perceived health level had no statistically significant effect on physical activity levels.

Conclusion:This study is a pioneer in Turkey for the operationalization of time use survey data to reveal the physical activity levels of the population. Measuring physical activity levels across the sociodemographic and socioeconomic groups of society will provide important contributions to the development of evidence-based policies in this regard.

 

Key words: physical activity, time use survey, Turkey

The gendered organization of paid work in Belgium

Author: Ignace Glorieux
Contributing author(s): van Tienover, Theun Pieter & Minnen, Joeri

The way women and men combine paid and family work is usually studied by investigating the amount of time they spend hereon. Such an aggregated approach is insufficient. Firstly, because these combination issues arise due to conflicting temporal orders and, secondly, because part time work and work on atypical working hours are considered to be strategies to cope herewith. The question when people work is more relevant to both arguments. By using the Belgian work grid from 2013 (n=2,316), this contribution shows that an episodic approach, departing from the timing of work, yields much richer insights in the way women and men organise their weekly paid work. Optimal matching analysis allows identifying 12 weekly work patterns and typifying them clearly as ‘male’ and ‘female’ patterns. Men typically organise their weekly paid work in fulltime work patterns whereas women largely organise their weekly paid work in part time work patterns. No evidence for atypical work patterns is found. This contribution shows that certain part time work patterns can be seen as a strategy to combine paid and family work. This only holds for women. Socio-economic and family characteristics do not determine the way men organise their weekly paid work.    

International Classification of Activities for Time Use Statistics 2016 (ICATUS 2016)

Author: Harumi Shibata Salazar

The International Classification of Activities for Time Use Statistics 2016 (ICATUS 2016) was endorsed by the United Nations Statistical Commission in March 2017.

 

ICATUS 2016 is a three-level hierarchical classification (composed of major divisions, divisions, and groups) of all possible activities undertaken by the general population during the 24 hours in a day. The purpose of the classification is to provide a framework that can be used to produce meaningful and comparable statistics on time use across countries and over time. As such, ICATUS 2016 is designed to be consistent with existing international standards and classifications, such as System of National Accounts (SNA) 2008, the resolution concerning statistics of work, employment and labour underutilization adopted by the 19th International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in October 2013, and the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC rev. 4), among others.

 

 

The purpose of this presentation is to (1) present the classification that was endorsed by the UN Statistical Commission; (2) explain its content and decisions taken during the development of the classification; (3) and explain challenges and future plans to implement the classification.

Subjective well-being: the most enjoyable activities

Author: MANUELA MICHELINI
Contributing author(s): Cialdea Laura, Michelini Manuela

The latest edition of the Italian Time Use Survey (2013-2014) provides information on the affective component of subjective well-being; this could be used to know people’s moods and feelings at a particular time.

In the daily diary the following question is included: "Is this a pleasant moment?" rank the feeling on a scale from -3 to +3, with -3 meaning "not pleasant at all" and +3 "very pleasant",  the respondent can indicate if the time spent was enjoyable or not, taking into account the activity itself but also the context (the same technique has been used in the 2009 French Time-Use survey).

Information on the mean level and distribution of affective states across different activities and population groups provides an important complement to other measures of well-being.

Levels of subjective well-being show a negative correlation with some activities, such as commuting, work, study and a positive correlation with others, such as leisure time, but the context plays a decisive role: for example leisure time is more enjoyable when spent with family than when spent alone, furthermore the timing of the activity is important, for example leisure time spent during shops’ closing times or while all other family members are working, is less enjoyable.

Using data from the 2013 Italian Time Use Survey, it is possible to identify the most enjoyable activities and explore the context variables that have an influence and the timing of daily enjoyable activities.

Occupant-Home Interaction before and after renovation. How time diary data (MOTUS) lead to an affordable and internationally applicable renovation concept.

Author: Joeri Minnen
Contributing author(s): Petrus te Braak; Ignace Glorieux

[Online info: https://www.hbits.io/en/solutions/en-marketing/occupant-home-interaction-before-and-after-renovation/]

 

Context of the project:

We spend more than 90% of our time indoors, much of which is also spent in our own home. Studies show that the technical condition of a home also affects the physical and mental health of the people who live in it. It is estimated that 9 out of 10 dwellings today will still be lived in by 2050. 

So how can we make sure that more homes are renovated? This is the question that VELUX asked when it embarked on a project in Anderlecht (Belgium), in the working-class district of Goede Lucht (‘Good Air’). 

The project involved tackling a house built in the 1920s [https://renovactive.velux.be/pro/en/] where there was a significant need for structural renovation.

Goal of the project:

Part of the affordability of this renovation project stems from the ability to replicate the renovation principles used. Every architect and manufacturer will argue based on the potential of the project or product in question. But it may be possible that occupants experience the renovation and its principals different from the initial theoretical assessment.

This brings us to the goal of this project: Performing a user analysis of the residents to give us an insight into the question of ‘how do various aspects of renovation have an effect on the interaction between het occupant and the house?’.

Underlying the overall question, our aim is to gather knowledge about the 4 dimensions of the interaction between the occupant and the house: (1) Overall wellbeing; (2) Satisfaction/happiness with the house; (3) Perception of health; and (4) patterns of behaviour.

Method used during the project:

For this project hbits is using a combination of different data collection methods. There’s the (online) questionnaire, individual conversations and group discussions – and then there’s the MOTUS app for examining user behaviour.

The occupants use the MOTUS app to record their behaviour and answer context-related questions. The types of behaviour involve, on the one hand, the use/application of technical renovations (e.g. central ventilation, central heating, opening a window/door) and, on the other, day-to-day activities (work, domestic chores, free time, sleeping, etc.) at home/elsewhere, alone or with others.

The MOTUS app will also be used as an intermediary for communicating technical indicators (such as the consumption of heat) to the occupants and to ask extra questions about them. By doing this, we can link technical input with sociological input.

Sonificating people’s time use and well-being in daily life: a result-feedback-method for promoting participants’ understanding and satisfaction of time use surveys

Author: Junichirou Ishio
Contributing author(s): Naoya Abe

Time use researchers are usually required to give feedback of the survey results to the participants. However, the results of the time use surveys are not always understandable for the participants. Although, various visualizing methods have been produced to make the results of time use surveys easily understandable, the increase of the variety of time use data such as affective states and the additional items in coding are enhancing the difficulty for the participants to understand the results, consequently, the participants sometimes blame researchers that the surveys were too burdensome for them. In order to mitigate this problem, we proposed a new method to feedback the results in more sensuous way. The method was the “time use sonification,” which was based on the use of non-speech audio for perceptualizing time use data. People basically perceive things or information through five senses, and the “sonification” is one of the methods to convert information into sounds for making the information perceptible through auditory sense. In a variety of scientific fields, the attempts for sonificating data have been starting, because people prefer listening to seeing or reading for understanding information in some cases. In this study, we collected the data of people’s time use, affective states, and autonomic cardiovascular activities through conducting the day reconstruction method and the pulse rate monitoring by a wearable devices. We converted these data into rhythm, code of its progression, and melody by following an algorithm originally developed by the authors. The sonificated data sounded like a musical piece, and it was expected to make the results more understandable for participants and make them satisfied with the participation. Furthermore, this method seemed to be useful to attract participants’ interest in time use surveys.

Setup RenovActive project - Occupant-Home Interaction before and after renovation. How time diary data (MOTUS) lead to an affordable and internationally applicable renovation concept.

Author: Joeri Minnen
Contributing author(s): Petrus te Braak & Ignace Glorieux

[Online info: https://www.hbits.io/en/solutions/en-marketing/occupant-home-interaction-before-and-after-renovation/]

 

Context of the project:

 

We spend more than 90% of our time indoors, much of which is also spent in our own home. Studies show that the technical condition of a home also affects the physical and mental health of the people who live in it. It is estimated that 9 out of 10 dwellings today will still be lived in by 2050. 

So how can we make sure that more homes are renovated? This is the question that VELUX asked when it embarked on a project in Anderlecht (Belgium), in the working-class district of Goede Lucht (‘Good Air’). 

The project involved tackling a house built in the 1920s [https://renovactive.velux.be/pro/en/] where there was a significant need for structural renovation.

 

Content poster:

 

Setup - The poster shows the project setup in which we make a user analysis of the residents to give us an insight into the question of ‘how do various aspects of renovation have an effect on the interaction between het occupant and the house?’.

 

Dimensions - We specifically will focus on the 4 dimensions of the interaction between the occupant and the house, being: (1) Overall wellbeing; (2) Satisfaction/happiness with the house; (3) Perception of health; and (4) patterns of behaviour.

 

Methodologies - For this project hbits is using a combination of different data collection methods. There’s the (online) questionnaire, individual conversations and group discussions – and then there’s the MOTUS app for examining user behaviour.

The occupants use the MOTUS app to record their behaviour and answer context-related questions. The types of behaviour involve, on the one hand, the use/application of technical renovations (e.g. central ventilation, central heating, opening a window/door) and, on the other, day-to-day activities (work, domestic chores, free time, sleeping, etc.) at home/elsewhere, alone or with others.

API - The MOTUS app will also be used as an intermediary for communicating technical indicators (such as the consumption of heat) to the occupants and to ask extra questions about them. By doing this, we can link technical input with sociological input. 

Are Government employees doing the tasks they are intended to do? A time-frame analysis of the working tasks (through MOTUS): job content, well-being, and work-life balance.

Author: Joeri Minnen
Contributing author(s): Ignace Glorieux

In Belgium everyone who works at the Government is graded in a job profile. This job profile includes all the tasks that are considered to be part of the job content of the personnel.

About 300 employees of the Department of Education of the Flemish Community of Belgium were asked to keep a 7-day diary and to register all of their work activities using on a pre-coded activity list. This activity list was composed on the basis of the 13 possible job profiles of this Department, from the Director General (highest hierarchical level) to the organization assistants (lowest hierarchical level). After an in-depth analysis of the job profiles in total more than 100 detailed work activities were available to select from. The survey was conducted using the MOTUS-software of the Research Group TOR of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

From this data collection two research questions were answered. A first research question relates to the question whether or not the actual work activities are in line with the descriptions in the overall job profiles of the Ministry of Education.

A second research question relates to difficulties in combining work and family.

Since most respondents not only registered their work related activities, but also (in broader terms) their private time (transport, household, child care, leisure, media use, personal care, sleep, ...), these data are well suited to get detailed insights in how men and women organise their work and non-work activities. We try to discriminate between different patterns of work-life combinations and relate these to different background variables (job profile, individual, household) and parameters of well-being.

Assessing well-being in rural and urban communities in aging society based on a psychophysiological time use survey method

Author: Junichirou Ishio
Contributing author(s): Naoya Abe

In this study, we assessed the time use and the psychophysiological states of the people in rural and urban communities that are under the influence of the population aging in Japan. The population aging is one of the most considerable phenomena in the modern societies, and it is causing a variety of social problems such as the shrinkage of communities, markets, and industries. These problems might finally lead the degradation of the citizens’ well-being. In order to conduct proper measures for these problems, we need to deeply understand the circumstances of the people’s life in the aging societies. Time use survey has a great potential to collect valuable information for this kind of purpose. In this study, we conducted the psychophysiological time use survey, which was the combination of the day reconstruction method and the measurement of the physiological stress level of the people. The indicator of the physiological stress level was calculated from the variability of the heart rate intervals recorded by a wrist-band-type wearable device. The surveys were conducted in a rural mountainous village and a hospital in an urban area in Japan, because the effects of the population aging have regionality. As a result, we could depict the sources of positive emotions, negative emotions, physiological relaxation, and physiological stress, in their daily life. We also discussed the differences between the circumstances in the rural community and the urban community. Furthermore, we certified that in the both community, even though the current well-being of the people have not yet been deteriorated, the progress of aging possibly cause negative effects on maintaining the sources of the positive emotions and physiological relaxation.

Paid Work and Quality of Life in Low-Income Families in South Korea

Author: Jayoung Yoon

Working families suffer from long hours of paid work practices, resulting in negative consequences for quality of life in South Korea. As paid work provide insufficient income for families despite the long hours of work, negative effects of long paid work might spill into other aspects of lives such as leisure and care work for some sub-group of families. Low-income families may experiecence lower qualities of life compared to higher-income families. Using Korean Time Use Survey 2014, this study looks at the ways in which low-income families suffer from negative consequences of paid work in terms of qualities of leisure and caretime deficit for children in South Korea. I investigate how paid work is differently organized in low-income families as opposed to in high-income families, in terms of length and timing. And I then examine whether distinct features of paid work are related to different experiences of leisure time and care deficit.     

The MOTUS platform: combining different research methods

Author: Joeri Minnen
Contributing author(s): Theun Pieter van Tienoven & Ignace Glorieux

[Online info: https://www.hbits.io/en/]

Much behavioural research asks people what they do by merely questioning them about their opinions, intentions, attitudes and stories. But what they actually do remains the great unanswered question. Which is why time diary researchers study behaviour itself. Or more accurately: habits. Not by asking people about their habits, but by studying them via objective data.

Time-use research often requires great effort of the participants and is more expensive than conventional data collection techniques. These two factors inhibit the adoption of this specific form of research. To resolve these issues, the Research Group TOR developed the MOTUS platform. After an initial development phase in 2013 for the use of online diary registration, the MOTUS software has been redeveloped to be more powerful in the back-office, and to be able to organize research via web, via applications, and also via other devices through the use of API-communication.

 

This presentation will provide:

(a)   an insight in the front-office of the software via a live presentation of the web browser and the a smartphone/tablet application;

(b)  an insight in the back-office, and particular in its ‘builder’-environment where the researches are developed and the fieldwork is organized and coordinated.

A short introduction to the MOTUS platform

Author: Joeri Minnen
Contributing author(s): Theun Pieter van Tienoven & Ignace Glorieux

[Online info: https://www.hbits.io/en/]

Much behavioural research asks people what they do by merely questioning them about their opinions, intentions, attitudes and stories. But what they actually do remains the great unanswered question. Which is why time diary researchers study behaviour itself. Or more accurately: habits. Not by asking people about their habits, but by studying them via objective data.

Time-use research often requires great effort of the participants and is more expensive than conventional data collection techniques. These two factors inhibit the adoption of this specific form of research. To resolve these issues, the Research Group TOR developed the MOTUS platform. After an initial development phase in 2013 for the use of online diary registration, the MOTUS software has been redeveloped to be more powerful in the back-office, and to be able to organize research via web, via applications, and also via other devices through the use of API-communication.

 

This poster will provide:

(a)   an insight in the front-office of the software via a live presentation of the web browser and the a smartphone/tablet application;

 

(b)  an insight in the back-office, and particular in its ‘builder’-environment where the researches are developed and the fieldwork is organized and coordinated.

Household chores and care work: shared times?

Author: Pedro Perista
Contributing author(s): Heloísa Perista, Ana Cardoso, Ana Brázia, Manuel Abrantes

 

Project INUT was carried out by CESIS and funded by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area, EEA Grants 2009-2014 – PT07. It included the first time-use survey to be developed in Portugal this century.

 

The project deliberately used a mixed-methods approach for data collection. Thus, the presentation will use both quantitative and qualitative results for reflection around the issue of the sharing of household chores.

 

Women continue to play the predominant role and shoulder the main responsibility in the domestic realm. Even if they count on their spouses’ or partners’ participation we continue to see the tendency of regarding the man as a person who ‘helps’, who ‘assists’ – a far cry from effectively sharing responsibilities and tasks (Hardill et al., 1997; Connell, 2004). In empirical context, expectations concerning the participation of men in the household chores are sometimes so low that any help they give, modest though it might be, is perceived as being significant and valuable.

 

Arguments associated with efficiency and skills that someone may or may not have are repeatedly put forward by men to justify how chores are distributed in their household.  The externalisation of household chores by purchasing the services of someone who does not belong to the household is only affordable to a small number of households.  Moreover, only a frequent resort to domestic services seems to clearly change the time spent on unpaid work and smooth out differences by gender.

Our evidence also indicates that the degree of responsibility regarding care cannot be fully explained by more or less individual time availability; instead, the complex interconnection of time availability with gender and social roles must be taken into account. Considerable pressure is exerted so that it falls to a woman in the family to provide care. One of the things that contributes to this asymmetry is the notion that men are less apt or less able to do this kind of work. We are therefore confronted with signs of the old divide promoting men in the public sphere and women in the private sphere (Sayer, 2007; Offer and Schneider, 2011).

Time use difference of young children according to mother’ employment status

Author: Nam Hee Do
Contributing author(s): Namhee Do

 

The present study aims to understand basic daily routines and environmental factors that affect children's development by investigating their time use. This study is a part of Panel Study on Korean Children is conducted by the KICCE(Korea Institute of Child Care and Education, http://www.kicce.re.kr/eng/introduce/01.jsp)-a national research institute under the Prime Minister’s office. PSKC is the first national panel study on newborn babies in Korea since 2008.

 

To carry out this study, foreign and national literature were reviewed along with conducting surveys and consulting meetings with field experts. The subjects were 627 children and their mothers aged between 5 and 8 residing in Korea. The mothers or the main caregivers were surveyed to collect information on the children with CAPI(Computerized Assisted Personal interviewing).

 

Time use data were collected from records of how the children spent average daily life, then the differences in the overall hours daily routines and the hours spent on each behavioral domains were calculated and were analyzed to understand the characteristics of activities of children at each wave(from wave 5 to wave 8). Lastly, children's working hours in sleep, daycare center and kindergarten, Hakwon(one of usual Korean extracurricular activities) and workbook were analyzed by the mother's employment status and persistence.

 

The results are as follows. 1) Children’s time use is different in sleep, daycare center and kindergarten, Hakwon(one of usual Korean extracurricular activities) and workbook between working and non-working mothers. 2) Overall time use in sleep are different depends on mother’s employment status; The children of non-working mothers sleep loner than those of working mothers’ 3) The time spending in daycare center and kindergarten, Hakwon(one of usual Korean extracurricular activities) and workbook of children of working mothers’ is much longer than those of non-working mothers’. The policy recommendation suggested based on these results.

 

Non-parental childcare and time allocation in the UK

Author: Jooyeoun Suh
Contributing author(s): Killian Mullan

Parents encounter various challenges and difficulties in arranging their daily family life, such as balancing the demands of paid work schedules and childcare. Part of the solution lies in parents’ use of a variety of non-parental childcare services that range from informal help provided by other family members and friends to day care centres. The UK government also has tried to give parents greater childcare choices by providing free part-time childcare centres, introducing a new tax-free childcare scheme, and other measures. Given the widespread concerns about integrating work and family life and gender equality in division of labour, it is critical to understand how uses of non-parental childcare and related policies affect mothers’ and fathers’ time allocation. Using 2000 and 2015 UK Harmonised Time Use Survey data, we examine the effect of policy changes between 2000 and 2015 in non-parental childcare provision on parental time use across two time periods in the UK. In our analysis, we consider six types of non-parental childcare provision: 1. childminder/nanny, 2. crèche/nursery, 3. playgroup/preschool, 4. club/farm centre/play scheme, 5. family members, and 6. friends/neighbour. We examine associations between non-parental childcare and (1) couples’ combined time in paid work, housework, and childcare; and (2) parents’ time separately by gender in paid work, housework, and childcare (subdivided by the type of childcare – physical care, developmental care, accompanying care, and with a child).

 

A Time to Call our Own? The Gendered Distribution of ‘Me Time’

Author: Heloisa Perista
Contributing author(s): Ana Cardoso, Ana Brázia, Pedro Perista, Manuel Abrantes

This paper will address the gendered patterns of time use, focusing on personal time.

Women’s and men’s usual practices as well as the norms and meanings of time and the feelings about time, including time poverty and time stress, will be discussed, regarding own time.

The quality and contents of free time versus the desired times, at the personal level, will be explored adopting a gender-sensitive approach.

 The main results of a large scale, nationwide, time use survey addressed to a representative sample of the population living in Portugal, aged 15 years or over, in a total of 1,146 questionnaires, conducted in 2015, form the empirical basis of the analysis. Using a multi-method approach, these quantitative results will be interpreted and illustrated by the findings of 50 qualitative in-depth interviews with men and women: either living in a dual career couple in a heterosexual relationship, and with a child (children) aged up to 15 years old; or single parents, in employment, and with a child (children) aged up to 15 years old.

This study was developed within the project National Survey on Time Use by Men and Women, funded by the European Economic Area Financial Mechanism, EEA Grants, Programme Area PT07: Mainstreaming Gender Equality and Promoting Work-Life Balance.

Context is King. Understanding behaviour by mapping the context.

Author: Joeri Minnen

[Online info: https://www.hbits.io/en/big-data-top-down-2/]

 

Big data vs. Context

More than 90% of all available data was generated in recent years. This relates to the traces that we leave behind when we go online. Via Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and others – as well as through our surfing and viewing habits, purchasing behaviour, use of media, travel details and so on.

So how does this stream of data become manageable? Datamining and mathematical algorithms reduce the data to movements and forms of behaviour that apply to a large group of people.

However: collecting lots of data very quickly using computer systems ignores the essence of data-gathering: understanding why people behave in a certain way. Because Big Data focuses on the actual behaviour displayed, the context of the behaviour remains out of the picture to a large extent, which calls the practical usability of Big Data into question. Only by placing the context of the individual action at the centre can we deduce what the reasons were for a certain action taking place.

3 dimensions

The context of an activity takes shape through 3 dimensions:

  1. The spatial dimension – the place where people are.
  2. The social dimension – who was there; level of satisfaction; feelings of stress, time pressures; motivation, etc.
  3. The temporal dimension – how long does an activity last (duration), when does the activity take place (timing), how many times is the activity repeated (tempo), what other activity precedes/ follows the activity (sequence)?

How to collect it?

 

 We use the MOTUS platform to collect information about people’s behaviour in 3 ways:

  1. Retrospective registration of previous actions – limited to 24 hours in time, to a maximum of one week in certain situations.
  2. Continuous registration for recording actions in real-time.
  3.  Passive registration via plugins, apps, wearables and sensors – these devices collect information about length of sleep, geolocation, stress levels, travel patterns, attendance, user behaviour, etc.

 

Additional contextual questions may be asked for each of the three forms of registration.

Social and spare time use of middle-aged single person households by marital status: Comparison of companion, type of activity, and the amount of time

Author: JOOSOO BYUN
Contributing author(s): Hyojong So and Meejung Chin

Single person households are considered prone to isolation from living alone (Lee, 2014). Physical separation can lead to less emotional support from family. However, this condition might encourage them to develop alternative ties to none-family members. The aim of this study is to understand social interactions of middle-aged single person households in South Korea by analyzing companions, type of activities, and the amount of time spent on their social and spare time.

The data was drawn from 2014 Time Use Survey conducted by Statistics Korea. The total of 1,994 time diaries was used for analysis consisting of 606 for unmarried, 712 for divorced and 676 for bereaved whose age ranged from 40 to 69. ANOVA and regression were conducted for analysis. Independent variable was marital status. The control variables were age, gender, the level of education, income, employment status, health status, and the type of days surveyed. Types of social and spare time was divided into 6 groups; socializing, media usage, religious activity, cultural excursion, sports, and others. Three types of companion were considered which were by oneself, with family members and with other people.

Middle aged single person households spent average of 294.7 minutes per day. The spare time spent with family members was excluded from analysis due to the little amount of time. We found significant group differences in the amount of spare time by oneself and time with others. The regression results indicate unmarried single person households spend more spare time alone especially on electronic/mobile devices than the divorced and the bereaved. The bereaved scored the most amount of spare time spent with other people, which suggest relieving the loss of their spouse through interacting with others. The divorced spend the least amount of spare time alone but engage in more spare time with others than the unmarried. This aligns with the previous study(Byun, Kim, Yoon & Han, 2006). The findings indicate that those who are living alone have different patterns of social relations by their marital status even considering their stage of life course. Future study needs to explore what consequences could be resulted from the different patterns of social relations among the middle-aged single person households.

Family structures, institutional clocks and the organization of childcare in Italy

Author: Tiziana Nazio

Using time-use data for Italy (2008-09), on a sample of around 3.800 households with children below 14, this paper assesses the differences in the amount of time parents devote to (engaged or routine) childcare in differently shaped family structures (marital or cohabiting union, single parent and blended family). It also explores how in turn family structure reflects in children’s time use: in which activities are children involved and with whom (mother, father, both parents, at school or with others) they spend their time. OLS regression models and sequence analysis, in particularly tree structured discrepancy analysis (Struder et al 2011), examine both the overall amounts spent on activities by day and the patterns in which parents and children engage in specific activities. It is gender, the working schedules and children’s timing of institutional activities, but not the family form, that seem to structure the organization of parental time. Regression results show that family structure affects children’s time spent in several activities, whereas sequence analysis reveals that it is institutional clocks that affect children’s time-use patterns rather than families. Net of the socio-demographic characteristics of parents and children, the structure of families affects children’s experiences mostly in terms of amount of time spent in each activity rather than in their organization and type. Children in cohabiting couples tend to experience more activities associated with more favorable outcomes (e.g. more reading). They might be more of a couple-specific investment under the higher degree of uncertainty that cohabitation entails with respect to marriage. It may also reflect the specific character of cohabiters in Italy, as carriers of less traditional values with respect to childrearing, likely associated to a specific parenting style. Cohabiting unions, in Italy, seem associated with a small advantage, if at all. Single parents and blended families experience instead a stronger structuring of their children’s time and activities out-side the household and suffer more conflicting demands on their parents’ time and organizational resources.

The Effect of Income on on Parent-Child Time Use

Author: Taryn Morrissey

The gap in achievement between children from low- and high-income families is wide, contributing to lifelong economic success (Reardon, 2011). Previous research suggests that increases in income can help narrow this gap, such that a $1,000 increase in income leads to an increase in children’s test scores of a 5-6% of a standard deviation (Dahl & Lochner, 2012; Duncan, Morris, & Rodriguez, 2011). One mechanism through which this increased income may affect children’s achievement is via the time parents and children spend together, particularly in enriching activities. Indeed, socioeconomic gaps in both the quality and quantity of parental time spent interacting with children are well documented (e.g., Gershenson, 2013; Kalil, Ryan, & Corey, 2012; Sayer et al., 2004), and increases in income have been associated with improved cognitive stimulation in the home (Votruba-Drzal, 2003).

 

 

 

One policy that may increase income among low-wage earners is a change in minimum wage laws. While increases in the minimum wage may lead to some employment losses, research suggests an increase in the federal minimum wage leads to an increase in family income among low-wage workers (CBO, 2014). Female-headed households may be particularly affected, as nearly two-thirds of the minimum wage workers in the U.S. are women (National Women’s Law Center, 2017).

 

 

 

This paper applies a difference-in-differences strategy using data from the 2003 – 2015 waves of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to investigate whether changes in federal and state minimum wage laws change how the mothers of young children allocate their time. The ATUS is a nationally representative survey with time-use diaries, linked to the rich demographic, employment, education, and income information in the Current Population Survey (CPS). Specifically, I examine how variation in minimum wage laws led to changes in mother-child time spent in activities such as reading and conversing with children, facilitating children’s activities, and in physical child care among a subsample of unmarried women with children under 18. I will test for heterogeneous effects by child age, geographic region, and urbanicity. As the United States and other nations debate strategies to address poverty, results have implications for policy.

 

How was your day? The contribution of job and person-level characteristics to daily work enjoyment

Author: Pierre Walthery

 

This paper investigates the relationship between enjoyment at work and job satisfaction. This exploration is set against the background of two traditionally separate fields: subjective representations about one's job -- ie work related attitudes, on the one hand, and mostly externally defined job quality on the other. Whilst job satisfaction – or job engagement – has been amply discussed in the organisational psychology literature as an individual attribute, a gap still exist when considering the role played by actual jobs on satisfaction levels across individual workers. The question therefore arises of the share of daily enjoyment that is attributable to a person’s characteristics and the one that depends on her job. Using a typology of jobs made up of a combination of two digit SIC 2007 industry and SOC 2010 occupations, and newly available data from the 2015 UK Time Use Survey – where episode level enjoyment was measured as part of the time diary, mean daily enjoyment at work was computed. We first set up a taxonomy of jobs acording to their level of enjoyment. We then modelled daily enjoyment at work by job. Finally, we ran a two-level model of enjoyment at work where both individual characteristics and job levels were simulatenoulsy. Results show that both individual and job levels variations in job enjoyment are indeed significant. Conseques for the litterature on job satisfaction and job quality are then mapped.

 

Change of Care Work in Korea, 1999-2014

Author: Ki-Soo Eun

This research first tries to conceptualize care work in Korean context.  According to the conceptualization of care work, this research aims at measuring care work in Korea from 1999 to 2014.  It is expected to see how care work has changed in Korean context for the last 15 years under the demographic regime of lowest-low fertility and rapid aging. 

What explains Korean men’s attitude-behavior discrepancy on housework?

Author: Eun-hye Kang

 

This study is an exploratory research investigating the gender role discrepancy of Korean men between their attitude and action on their involvement in housework and finding factors that account for their contradictory behavior.

 

Korean men’s attitude towards traditional gender role that male is breadwinner and female is homemaker has been weakening(Kang, 2012). A number of men who believe household labor should be shared by both spouse is increasing, and this has become more dominant among the young(Bae et al., 2013). Yet, the fact that they realize such attitude in to their behavior is a different matter. Many of those who showed an opposing attitude towards traditional gender role are found to frequently leave a major portion of household labor to their wives(Moon et al., 2011).

 

Korea is well known of its long-hour working culture in the global society. According to the OECD statistics(2015), Korea has ranked second with 343 additional yearly hours compared to the OECD on average. This has been conventionally viewed as a primary factor in explaining their low involvement in housework in most of literature. Yet, studies revealing gender inequality in leisure(Cho, 2015) and sleep time(Cha & Eun, 2014) have made it questionable if men are willing to participate in housework even though they have time to spare to. Little has known that whether men’s little contribution to housework is deliberate or involuntary.

 

In that regard, this study empirically examines Korean men’s attitude-behavior discrepancy on housework by comparing a group who shows untraditional gender role attitude and corresponding behavior in housework involvement with another group who shows untraditional gender role attitude but unmatched behavior, by analyzing 2014 Korean Time Use Data. The sample is limited to fathers in dual-earner families. First, paidwork, leisure, and discretionary time of these two groups are examined to find differences in their daily time use pattern. Then, analysis on influence of their socio-economic factors on their housework time follows in search for explanations on their level of participation in housework.

 

Frontier of the Night

Author: Johanna Giczi

Just like a Chopin-etude shows all the essential characteristics of a piano concerto, our essay attempts to present the findings of a complex research in three short pieces. Of course, an etude is not the same as a full concerto; and these short notes can not replace our full research report. Nevertheless, our three etudes attempt to highlight all the essential features of our research. Using data from surveys in 1986 and 2000 we focus on changes in lifestyles in Hungary in the new millennium by investigating patterns in the use of time .

The  starting  point  of  our  investigation  in  regard  to  the  frontiers  of  the  night  was Melbin’ s  thesis  about  the  dimension-change  in  our  conquest  from space  to  time.  According  to  his  work,  after  reaching  the  limits  of  expansion  in  space,  people  have started  pushing  limits  in  time,  colonizing  more  and  more  time  from  the  night.  Through this process more and more activities move from daytime hours to the night-time.  In  consumer  societies   spreading  shift  work,  whole-night  television  and  radio programs,  non-stop  stores,  cinemas,  theaters,  night  flights  and  night  trains  and  the huge amount of operating and security staff   members confirm Melbin’ s thesis about the conquest of the night. In this section we demonstrate the changing frontiers of the night between 1986 and 2010 in Hungary using new indicators to observe the shifting frontier of the night, manifested as flexibility and densitiy of the night time.

Exploring the relationships between time use patterns and adolescent obesity in New Zealand

Author: Jinfeng Zhao
Contributing author(s): Arier Lee, Daniel Exeter, Jennifer Utter, Melody Smith, Boyd Swinburn, and Andrew Harvey

 

 

Exploring the relationships between time use patterns and adolescent obesity in New Zealand

Jinfeng Zhao, Arier Lee, Daniel Exeter, Jennifer Utter, Melody Smith, Boyd Swinburn, and Andrew Harvey

Email: jinfeng.zhao@auckland.ac.nz

Phone: +64 21 252 7124

The prevalence of obesity in New Zealand children has reached epidemic proportions. One in nine (11%) NZ children aged 2–14 years were obese in 2014/2015, and rates were much higher for Māori (15%) and Pacific children (30%) and those living in the most deprived areas. Childhood obesity negatively impacts the current and future health of children. This situation calls for innovative research into strategies to reduce the significant personal, economic and structural impacts of obesity.

There is growing recognition that an individual’s health outcomes are associated with how they use their time. For example, among American children, hours of TV viewing is positively associated with acceleration of body mass index growth. Interestingly, increased sleeping hours on weekends and holidays to compensate for sleep deficits over weekdays reduces the odds of being overweight or obese in Chinese children. Exploring the patterns of children’s time use may offer opportunities to improve the effectiveness of obesity interventions.

The overall goal of this study is to investigate the relationship between adolescent obesity and time use patterns in a New Zealand context using the Youth’12 National Health and Wellbeing Survey of secondary school students.

The relationship between adolescent obesity and time use patterns will be analysed by age, gender, ethnicity, deprivation, rurality and geography. Time use patterns for activities such as eating and drinking behaviours, media use and physical activities will be examined using statistical and visualisation approaches.

This is the first research to explore time use patterns and their association with obesity in New Zealand adolescents. The research findings will fill a knowledge gap and provide insights that can be used to guide young people to form healthy time use behaviours that will benefit them throughout their lifetime.

Time pressure among parents in the society of very low fertility: the case of Korea

Author: Seung-Eun Cha
Contributing author(s): Georgios Papastefanou

Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate time pressure of Korean parent with dependent children, and describe how time pressure indicators are related with care activities. Our research goals were, first, to estimate the prevalence of care activity (interactive, supportive and supervision (meal with child and leisure with child)) by gender of parent and age of child, second, to examine the relationship between the time pressure measures- subjective measure (perceived time pressure) as well as objective measure (total hours of multitasking, numbers of episodes, and lack of free time,)- and the care activities. Lastly, we tested how those relationship is different by gender and the age of the child.

Methods: For the analysis we employ 2014 KTUS (Korean Time Use Survey) and select analytic sample of adults (20+), who are living with children age 18(#=14,074). We used relevant variables (day of week, gender, age, lifecycle, employment status, marriage status, SES, region, and household structure)) as control variables in four logit model.

 

Results: We found that all four care activities (interactive care, support, meal with child and leisure with child) were associated with more numbers of episodes per day. It means child care activities truly produce additional activities on that care day, and it supports the general notion that child care generate pressure to daily routine. Except for supportive care, however, not all care activities were strongly associated with each time pressure indicators in our analysis. Interactive care was not significantly associated with feeling rushed or even time poverty, in adjusted model. Even, supervisory activities, meal with child and leisure with child, showed negative association with lack of free time or feeling rushed. We did find that supportive care (housework or helping activities) were associated with all four time pressure indicators, yet the association were nonlinear. It implies that the positive association between supportive care activity and time pressure is conditional. Gender difference were found also. As for mothers, interactive care activity was associated with increase in time pressure in feeling rushed or time poverty, while it was not significant for fathers. We were able to identify that the prevalence of care activities were differ by live cycle. The association between care activities and time pressure indicators were, however, not so much different by the age of child. Further details will be discussed in the paper. 

Earnings and Time Use between Mexican Women

Author: Isalia Nava-Bolaños
Contributing author(s): María Edith Pacheco Gómez Muñoz

Part of the literature is based on a simplified assumption that an individual exists –the homo economicus. This arquetype consists of an extrapolation of gender roles and stereotypes that assign the role of breadwinner to men and that exclude women from being economic actors; women are treated as wives and mothers –they assume responsibilities for domestic labors and family care– in nuclear families, which are considered to be harmonious institutions. However, women are increasingly joining the workforce. This study analyzes the effect of spouses' contribution to Mexican household income on how time spent on housework is allocated. We try to identify if women decrease their housework as their earnings increase or if women maintain their levels of participation when they havehigher wages. To this end, an OLS regression was formulated using information from a special module of Time Use from the National Survey on Household Income and Expenditures 2014. The main independent variable is the proportion of wage or salary income contributed by the husband. Control variables include education level, number of workers, family types, number of children in schooling ages and number of elderly. The first results show as Bittman et al. (2003) mentioned “gender trumps money”.

Sequence Analysis of Activities of Overtime Workers

Author: Masago Fujiwara

 When working overtime, we know that it might not only delay the timing for commuting home and eating dinner, but also delay and/or reduce the hours for watching TV. and sleeping. If we want to ascertain these sequential activities caused by overtime working by resorting to statistical data, it goes without saying that we have to depend on time use data.

For this analysis, I make use of the 2006 Survey data on Time Use and Leisure Activities conducted by Statistics Bureau of Japan. To find out a general sequences (laws) of activities of overtime workers, I organized a pair of activity rates tables(20 activities×96 time slots) that are extracted from workers’ original sequential data of two straight days of week. One is the table of a day when they work overtime till late and another is the table of a day when they finish work at closing time.

To compare with each other, I employ several methods that have been developed to make the best use of timing data. Methodologically, my study is to link Sequence analysis and Activity rates approach.    

  My analysis focusing on

(a) how the length of each activities changed between them.

 But, this usual analysis is not sufficient for us, because it avoids examining the

problems as follows.

(b) how the timing of each activities changed between them, and

(c) how the chain reactions of activities started with the overtime work as a

 

cause.

Effects of delaying school start time on adolescents’ sleep behavior in South Korea

Author: Young Kyung Do

Delaying school start time has been promoted as a potential policy tool to improve inadequate sleep duration among children and adolescents. Although multiple studies from mostly Western countries have documented its effectiveness qualitatively, the magnitude of the effect that is likely to vary by cultural and educational settings is also an important consideration for policy purposes. If, for example, a one-hour delay in school start time (e.g., from 8AM to 9AM) leads on average to an increase in total sleep duration only by 10 minutes, this finding would raise the question of why a large proportion of the one-hour duration resulting from delayed school time might not necessarily contribute to increased sleep duration among children and adolescents. This study uses a natural experiment in South Korea to estimate the policy effect of delayed school start time, focusing on its magnitude and a possible countervailing behavioral response that might partially compromise the policy effect (i.e., adolescents now tend to get to bed later than before because they understand that their wake-up times have shifted to a later time point in the morning). In September 2014, one administrative region of South Korea implemented a policy of delaying school start time to 9AM for its secondary schools, whereas all other regions did not adopt such a policy. This study used large (N=212,538), nationally-representative data on secondary-school students from the 2013-2015 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, an annually repeated cross-sectional survey of secondary-school students in South Korea. Using the difference-in-differences (DID) approach, the outcome measures of interest included total sleep duration and sleep-in and wake-up time points, separately by whether weekday or weekend and by school type. The DID estimates suggested that delayed school start time did increase weekday total sleep duration among secondary-school students but that it also appeared to lead to a delay in bed-in time by a small amount. Among high-school students, for example, the estimated effect was an increase in total sleep duration by 16 minutes on average, which is a composite effect of delayed wake-up time (21 minutes on average) and delayed bed-in time (5 minutes on average). The policy of delaying school start time in South Korea has a noticeable magnitude of the positive effect of increasing sleep duration in adolescents at a population level, supporting the policy recommendation based on the consistent results of the previous studies from other countries. The countervailing behavioral response of delaying bed-in time was observed, but its magnitude was relatively small to moderate. Policy and research implications of these findings are discussed.

Towards a General Equilibrium Theory of Allocation of Time

Author: Sanchis Raúl G.

A first attempt to develop a General Equilibrium Theory of Allocationo ofTime is presented in this paper. Household economic models constitute the base we extend to build the consumer side. One contribution consists of developing a producer theory which accomodates time inputs so that a general equilibrium approach can be properly identified. As a by product we introduce non-human working time in the analysis both from consumer and producer sides -namely time inputs consumed by physical capital, new technologies or standard durable goods increasingly important in modern economies. Last, we propose normative conditions to be fulfilled by a general equilibrium allocation within the proposed setting.

Family time and technological change: A time-diary study of the UK between 2000 and 2015

Author: Killian Mullan
Contributing author(s): Killian Mullan, Stella Chatzitheochari

The past several decades have witnessed profound change in information and communication technologies. With the development and rapid diffusion of powerful smartphones and tablets, together with enhanced internet connections and capacities, digital devices have become firmly embedded in many aspects of our daily lives. The impact of technological change on family life has long been the subject of debate and concern. In particular, digital devices tend to engender ‘individualised’ activity, and thereby may impact negatively upon shared family time. Yet there has been surprisingly very little research on this topic. Using data from the United Kingdom Time Use Surveys 2000 and 2015, this paper examines change in the time children 8-16 years are together with their parents, and in shared activities with their parents. Then, using data from UKTUS 2015, we explore 1) patterns of device use among children and their parents; and 2) the way in which patterns of family device use aligns with children’s time together with their parents. We find that there has been a marginal increase in the time children are together at the same location with their parents between 2000 and 2015. Moreover, we find no change in the time children and parents engage in the same activity when together at the same location. With respect to children’s use of digital devices, for most of this time their parents are not also using them. That is, the use of digital devices tends primarily to be an ‘individualised’ activity. Furthermore, for most of the time children are using devices they are not engaging in shared activities with their parents. We conclude from our study that arguments that modern technology has eroded family time are not supported by evidence from time-diaries in the UK. Though time using devices is predominantly ‘individualised’, it largely maps onto time when children are together with their parents but not engaging in the same activity, which, as we found, has not changed significantly over this period.    

Have mobile devices changed working patterns in the 21st century? A time-diary analysis of work extension in the UK

Author: Killian Mullan
Contributing author(s): Killian Mullan, Judy Wajcman

It is commonly claimed that ubiquitous connectivity is eroding the boundaries that once separated work from other aspects of life. Mobile devices in particular enable people to perform work-related activities anytime anywhere. Surprisingly, however, we know littleabout how much people nationwide use digital devices while working, and specifically about the extent to which mobile devices facilitate work extension. In this paper we investigate changes in work extension during a period of dramatic technological change, and explore the relationship between work extension and the use of mobile devices. We use two nationally representative UK Time Use Surveys (2000-01 and 2014-15) which provide information on paid work throughout the day, and, for the latter survey only, device use throughout the day. We find a significant increase in the incidence of work extension on working days in 2015 compared with 2000, and we find that work extension is significantly associated with longer total working hours. However, as the proportion of individuals reporting work extension is relatively small, the impact on change in paid work hours overall is negligible. With respect to work extension and mobile device use, we find a significant positive relationship suggesting that mobile devices are facilitating work extension. More generally, however, the use of mobile devices while working is concentrated among professionals and managers, and it is a relatively small proportion of this group on any given day who report work extension. Future work should explore the implications of these results for subjective feelings of time pressure.    

Time use surveys made easy

Author: Jacques Charmes
Contributing author(s): Panel organised and already submitted by Prof. Indira Hirway

 

Introduction

 

Several reviews of the time-use surveys in the global south have concluded that these countries are far behind the goal of producing quality data using rigorous concepts and methods and that most of these countries will take years before they can produce quality time use data (Hirway 2016, Charmes 2016, Esquivel 2016, Budlender 2008, and Hirway 2010).  As regards modular time use survey, the experts recommend that one should avoid using modular time use survey (where time use survey is conducted as a module to a national survey). Though it is an easy option, because there are several problems with the concepts and methods of these surveys that fail to produce quality time use data[1], for good results it is desirable to use 24-hour time diary based stand alone survey for data collection.

 

It is also observed however that many countries in the global south, in spite of using 24- hour diary method, have failed to use rigorous methods and failed to produce quality data. This is because (1) countries find it difficult to follow the time diary methods of data collection and then analyse the raw data systematically, (2) countries tend to ignore these surveys, as they do not yet appreciate the utility of time use data in national policy making, and/or (3) frequently they do not have the funds necessary for conducting these time consuming and expensive surveys.  Looking to advantages of time use surveys in understanding critical socioeconomic and in national policy formulation as well as the importance of time use data in implementing the universally accepted Sustainable Development Goals and the resolution on conceptual framework of work put up by the ILO (ILO 2013), it is necessary to simplify time use surveys – without compromising the quality of the data so that countries will find it easy to conduct time use surveys and produce quality data all the same.

 

The main objective of this proposal is to explore how time use surveys can be made easy in a way that countries find it easy to conduct time use surveys and produce good quality data.

 

Major Areas of Exploration

 

The above reviews have pointed out several weak points in the concepts and methods used in conducting time use surveys by many countries in the global south. These weaknesses are less than satisfactory background questionnaire, poor sampling, non-representative time sample[2], etc. These weaknesses can be addressed by a well-designed guidebook, as these problems are basically related to problems of a household survey. A good guidebook can address these problems and also harmonize concepts and methods so that the data will be of sound quality and globally comparable. However, the problems that countries are likely to find too difficult to overcome are (1) data collection through a 24-hour time diary and (2) analysis of the collected raw data.  It will be useful to simplify these two tasks.

 

Problems Faced in Data Collection:  Time-use surveys differ considerably from other household surveys or other surveys, as under latter surveys questions are put to units (households, members of the household, production enterprises, business or service enterprises) to which respondents are expected to reply. The questions could be open-ended or with recorded alternatives. Respondents usually find it easy to respond to these questions.  Time use surveys on the other hand want (1) respondents to fill in 24-hour time diary according to the time spent by them on each and every activity chronologically, (2) they are also expected to report simultaneous activities (i.e. when two or more activities are conducted simultaneously) and divides the time spent between simultaneous activities and (3) respondents are also expected to report the specific context in which activities are carried out.  When there is no 100 % literacy, which is the case in many countries in the global south, interviewers are expected to perform the above jobs, which is more difficult as respondents are expected to remember or interviewers are expected to help the respondents in remembering the time spent on each and every activity performed by respondents.   

 

Our reviews have shown that many countries frequently do not conduct national time use survey or stop after conducting one national / large scale time use survey because they find it difficult to manage 24-hour time diary. For example, NSO in Indonesia has observed that the problems that they face in conducting time use surveys are (1) rural people have no concern with time, (2) many of the respondents are not interested responding to time diaries even when interviewers interview them, and (3) the diaries therefore are half filled. This happens even when the time slots are of 1-3 hours (Hirway 2016). Duncan Ironmonger also has observed that in several island countries, time does not make much sense to people (UNDP 2005). Many countries have stopped conducting time use surveys after the first survey frequently because the quality of data is suspected. Many countries have therefore found short-cuts by conducting modular surveys using stylised questions, or compromised on the methodology by selecting a very small non-representative sample, or selecting time sample that is too narrow, or by not collecting time spent on simultaneous activities[3].

 

We think that some simplification can be explored in the following areas:

 

Making time diaries light:  Under the light time diary approach, some surveys provide a pre-determined list of activities and ask the respondent to choose from these activities while filling in the diary, (i.e. light diary). On the other hand some countries do not provide a list and ask respondent to describe his / her activities. Codes to these activities are assigned later on by investigators (i.e. full diary). However, full diary calls for lot of work on the part of respondents, and interviewers. Coders / analysts also find it a little difficult. It is also more costly. There are several approaches to design light time diaries. It would be useful to explore the relative strengths of these approaches against the full diaries.

Redesigning Background Questionnaire and Reformulate Context Variables: There are three major instruments of data collection under time use surveys: background questionnaire, time diary and context variables. The most difficult part is filling in time diary.  It is observed that there is likely to be some substitutability between time diary and background questionnaire and between time diary and context variables. If this substitutability is tapped fully the burden of time diary can be reduced. It would be useful to explore this area to make time use survey easy to manage.

 

Designing Detailed Instruction Manual and Intensive training: 24-hour time diaries filled in by interviewers in countries not fully literates causes another set of problems: the role of the interviewers is very critical here, as they have to get the right response from respondents. The interviewer has to establish good rapport with respondents and get their replies without asking any leading question. He has to collect the right data without any biases. Interviewers frequently have to get the timings of the activities when the respondents do not wear watches or use clocks. Designing of a detailed instruction manuals intensive training of interviewers and strong follow up are very critical here, as they can make the task of data collection  (Hirway 2003). Our review has observed that insufficient training and sketchy instructional manuals tend to result in poor quality data, particularly when the data are collected by interviewers (Hirway 2016). 

 

Making analysis of time use data easy

It is frequently observed that time use survey data are lying unused because countries do not have the required expertise to analyse raw time use data meaningfully. They also find it difficult to use time use data with other datasets which are collected through conventional methods, as both the datasets are not comparable automatically and one has to make them compatible with each other before using them together. It will be useful to explore this area for simplification of time use surveys.

 

In the end I would like to add that Independent, stand alone and 24-hour diary-based time use surveys need not be conducted every year, as time use of people do not change within 5 years. We therefore recommend that a time use survey may be conducted at an interval of 5 years or so. In the event of a crisis, when it is important to understand changes in the time use of people in a short period, a small scale time use surveys, issue / sector / region based, may be conducted.

 

[1]Though a modular time use survey is attractive because it is like a usual household survey, it produces poor quality of data in multiple ways. It restricts the content, coverage time use data as per the subject of the main survey to which it is attached. Again, in most cases, modular surveys use stylized questions by asking questions on how much time respondents spent only on a given short list of activities. It has been shown conceptually and empirically that the quality of a modular survey is much inferior to the data collected through a time diary.  Even when a modular time use survey is based on a 24-hour dairy based survey, it cannot be as large as a full-fledged national time use survey, as it will increase the respondents’ burden beyond a limit. It is likely to confuse investigators and respondents with the two different methodologies. Again, the respondent stress and investigator stress are also likely to be high, which may affect adversely the quality of TUS data. 

 

[2]Frequently time use surveys are conducted for a day or a month or a season. Such surveys do not represent the total time of people and therefore the data are not representative.

[3]Our reviews show that many countries do not collect data on simultaneous activities and/or do not include the data in analysis

Differential effects of wage on intra-household time allocation in Ghana.

Author: Emmanuel Orkoh
Contributing author(s): Emmanuel Orkoh, Derick Blaauw, Carike Claassen

This paper examines the effects of wage on intra-household time allocation to paid and unpaid work with particular attention on gender and geographical differences. We pool together as a composite data set on male and females aged 15 years and above from the last three rounds of the Ghana Living Standard Survey (GLSS4, GLSS5 and GLSS6) and apply the Instrumental Variables Tobit (IV Tobit) estimation techniques in order to simultaneously address the issues of potential endogeneity between wage and time use and the censoring of the data. The descriptive analysis shows a considerable reduction in time allocation to unpaid work within the period of one and half decade (1998-2013). Although the gap has narrowed across gender and geographical location, females and rural residents continue to spend more time on unpaid work than males and urban residents. While the distribution of hourly wage shows a consistent increase within the period under study, males and urban residents continue to receive more wages than their females and rural counterparts. The regression analysis reveals that wage reduces unpaid hours of work for both male and females as well as rural and urban residents. However, the results remain significant for only females and rural residents in spite of the fact that these categories of respondents receive lower average wage than males and urban residents. Wage has negative effect (income effect) on the labour supply of females but positive effect (substitution effect) for males, as rural and urban residents. Nationally, the effect of wage is positive since the substitution effect outweighs the income effect. These differential effects of wages require that in designing policies that seek to use wage as an instrument to achieve gender and spatial equality in labour force participation, labour supply and household production, government will have to consider these factors.

Time, Diseases of Affluence and the Story of the Mediterranean Diet

Author: Michael Bittman
Contributing author(s): Cathy Banwell, Charlotte Wilkinson-Bibicos, Eimear Cleary

Between the mid-1970s and the 1990s English speaking countries reduced the time devoted to eating by roughly one third. This is true for the USA, Canada, the UK and Australia. In contrast, in France eating time expanded over the same time period. Epidemiologists and nutritionists increasingly advocated the Mediterranean diet as the antidote to the high prevalence of diseases of affluence, especially co-morbidities associated with obesity – Cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, colorectal cancer and osteoporosis, etc. Starting in the late 1950s, the link between the ‘Mediterranean diet’ and diseases of affluence became widely diffused by the 1990s. The evidence for the Mediterranean diet comes chiefly from epidemiological data backed up by chemical analysis of nutrition. However, consideration of other factors present in Mediterranean societies has been less systematically considered. This paper discusses the process of the diffusion of the Mediterranean diet. It argues for the idea that eating is a socially organised activity and that information about the allocation of time to activities in Mediterranean countries may be important. 

Full Time Employed Couple's Leisure Time Investment on Education and Culture Effects of Occupational Prestigious Level and Motherhood Penalty

Author: Fatma Sibel Ağlamaz

Abstract

 

Social stratification research broadly focuses on paid and unpaid work in terms of socio-

economic status and gender. However, leisure time is studied far less even though it is

 

considered as one of the fundamental investment tools for social status in modern working life.

 

So to contribute to this comparatively less studied topic in this research full time employed and

 

partnered people’s leisure time budgeting is examined. One of the aims of this study is to explain

 

the relationship between occupational levels of prestige and leisure time investment in education

 

and culture in terms of social stratification similar to Bourdieu’s Human Capital. The other aim

 

is to reveal the effect of the price of motherhood for leisure time investment in education and

 

culture. To do so, the data used in this research is aggregated MTUS (Multinational Time Use

 

Study) which includes various activity fields such as a variable at an individual level. Multi

 

variate regression and desccriptive analysis are run; hence, it is found that full time employed

 

people in a relationship who work at higher occupational levels of prestige are more likely to

 

invest their leisure time in education and culture, and also those women who have a baby are

 

more vulnerable than men, and spend less time on education and culture compared to other

 

women.

The Leisure Gap in Developing Countries

Author: Pablo Olmos

 

In this paper, I use harmonized time-use surveys for several devel- oped and developing countries to analyze the cross- and within-country allocation of time by income and educational attainment. While in de- veloped countries there is a well-documented leisure gap with respect to educational attainment, with the less-educated having more leisure than the more-educated, I find that the opposite is true for developing economies: the more-educated have significantly more leisure time on average. I also find that this pattern is more pronounced for men. To better understand the leisure gap in developing countries, I use decomposition methods to estimate how much of the leisure gap can be accounted for by differences in employment rates and demographic characteristics. To shed light on why the leisure profiles are different between developed and developing countries, I study the occupational distributions in each type of country and the time-uses associated with these. In particular, I provide suggestive evidence that the prevalence of informal markets and self-employment (as substitutes for the ab- sence of a safety-net) account for a significant share in explaining why the less-educated have less free time in developing countries.

 

Using Time Use Data to Promote Gender Balance and Inclusion in Research, Innovation and Training (PLOTINA H2020 Project)

Author: Elsa Fontainha

 

The research is done under the Horizon 2020 Project PLOTINA Promoting gender balance and inclusion in research, innovation and training (*).The research uses original data collected for a key area of the project ( KA 3 Work and Personal Life Integration) as well as data from Time Use surveys in particular American Time Use Survey.

The research studies the specificities of the work-life balance of teachers and academics and tries to contribute for the design of better policies in academia in order to promote gender balance.

 

Outline and summary results of the 2016 Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities conducted by Statistics Bureau of Japan

Author: Hideaki Sudo
Contributing author(s): Sudo Hideaki

 

Affiliation of the presenting authors

 

:Statistics Bureau of Japan

 

 

 

Country of the presenting authors

 

:Japan

 

 

 

Abstract

 

:The Statistics Bureau of Japan conducted the Survey on Time Use and Leisure Activities in October 2016. The Survey aims to obtain comprehensive data on daily patterns of time allocation and on leisure activities and has been conducted every five years since 1976. In this survey, about 88,000 households are selected and about 200,000 household members ten years old and over report their activities by every quarter of an hour during consecutive two days which are designated by Statistics Bureau. We will introduce the outline and part of summary results of the 2016 survey.

 

 

 

2 to 5 key words

:Survey outline and results